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Java By Ajay Tripathi. Pre requisites…..  C and C++  OOP  Internet and WWW.

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Presentation on theme: "Java By Ajay Tripathi. Pre requisites…..  C and C++  OOP  Internet and WWW."— Presentation transcript:

1 Java By Ajay Tripathi

2 Pre requisites…..  C and C++  OOP  Internet and WWW

3 History  Phase I Introduction of C++ in 1979 And became the stock programming language in the 90’s. Standardized in Nov Success Reasons? It enhanced an existing successful language like C instead of building an entirely a new language.

4 PHASE 2 (GUI)  Object orientation permits reusable code, hence a Graphical User interface GUI (E.g. MS-Windows).  GUI has enormously expanded the number of computer-users.  Object oriented programming (OOP) with GUI is the “grand consensus of the computer industry”.

5 PHASE III (Internet)  Internet stared in the 1960’s as a way to maintain communications in the event of a nuclear attack.  Success of ARPANET inspired NSFNET.  In 1983, TCP/IP became the official protocol which connected ARPANET and NSFNET.  This collection of connected networks came to be called the Internet.  By 1990, 3000 networks and 200,000 computers were connected to the Internet. By 1992, there were 1 million hosts.  The hosts had diverse hardware and operating systems like DOS/Windows, UNIX, and MacOS.  How to share information easily across different computer platforms?

6 PHASE IV (WWW)  To simplify sharing of documents and data across the Internet, WWW invented in 1989 at CERN, Geneva.  WWW is an architectural framework for viewing documents stored across thousands of machines connected to the Internet.  The scattered document seems like a single document using a browser to view hypertext, which contains hyperlinks.  However, this concerned passive text or document files, and users on the www could not share executable programs.  How to incorporate interactive programs on the Web?  How to share executable programs across platforms?

7 Java Evolution  In 1990, Sun Microsystems started a project called Green.  Objective: to develop software for consumer electronics.  Sun best known for its popular Unix workstation, Solaris OS, and NetworkFile System (NFS).  Project was assigned to James Gosling, a veteran of classic network software design. Others included Patrick Naughton, Chris Warth, Ed Frank, and Mike Sheridan.  The team started writing programs in C++ for embedding into toasters, washing machines, VCR’s, PDA’s (Personal Digital Assistants).  Aim was to make these appliances more “intelligent”. But they soon realized...

8  C++ is powerful, but also dangerous. – The power and popularity of C derived from the extensive use of pointers. – However, any incorrect use of pointers can cause memory leaks, leading the program to crash. – In a complex program, such memory leaks are often hard to detect.  Robustness is essential – Users have come to expect that Windows may crash or that a program running under Windows may crash.(“This program has performed an illegal operation and will be shut down”) – However, users do not expect toasters to crash, or washing machines to crash. – A design for consumer electronics has to be robust.  Replacing pointers by references, and automating memory management was the proposed solution.

9  Oak: Hence, the team built a new programming language called Oak, which – avoided potentially dangerous constructs in C++, such as pointers, pointer arithmetic, operator overloading, etc. – introduced automatic memory management, freeing the programmer to concentrate on other things.  Architecture neutrality (Platform independence) – Many different CPU’s are used as controllers. Hardware chips are evolving rapidly. As better chips become available, older chips become obsolete and their production is stopped. – Manufacturers of toasters and washing machines would like to use the chips available off the shelf, and would not like to reinvest in compiler development every two-three years. – So, the software and programming language had to be architecture neutral.

10  It was soon realized that these design goals of consumer electronics perfectly suited an ideal programming language for the Internet and WWW, which should be: – object-oriented (& support GUI)– robust– architecture neutral  Internet programming presented a BIG business opportunity much bigger than programming for consumer electronics. – Java was “re-targeted” for the Internet.  The team was expanded to include Bill Joy (developer of Unix), Arthur van Hoff, JonathanPayne, Frank Yellin, Tim Lindholm etc.  In 1994, an early web browser called WebRunner was written in Oak. WebRunner was later renamed HotJava.  In 1995, Oak was renamed Java. – A common story is that the name Java relates to the place from where the development team got its coffee. – The name Java survived the trade mark search.

11  Additional features were added to make Java – secure – multithreaded (concurrent) – distributed and dynamic – high performance Security: - Is a key feature on the Internet. It should be possible to specify what system resources the program can access. – In the sandbox policy remote applets are not trusted to access any local resources, – while local applications are trusted to access all resources. – This can be modified, by allowing digitally signed applets selective access. Multiple threads: - C and C++ support multiple threads, using fork(), – this feature is NOT a part of the ANSI/ISO standard, and is available only on UNIX. – DOS support is available for the spawn...and exec... family of functions. These features are not much used. - But concurrency is essential on the internet, since download times are uncertain, so one process should not block all others. – Threads also needed for e.g. animation.

12 Distributed: – The ultimate vision of OOP is to have objects stored on different computers to interact with each other. That is, a user can assemble a program different parts of which are stored on different computers. Dynamic: – Java is both compiled and interpreted. – Thus, source code is compiled to bytecode. – The Java Virtual Machine loads and links parts of the code dynamically at runtime. – Hence it carries substantial run time type information on objects. – Hence, It supports late binding.

13  High performance – Though Java uses an interpreter, it also has a compiler, which generates machine- independent bytecodes. – Optimization can take place at this stage to ensure that Java programs can match the speed of programs in compiled languages like C++. – Where speed cannot be traded off for platform independence, Java provides “native method support”, for code written in languages like C/C++, and compiled for specific platforms.

14 SUN MICROSYSTEM OFFICIAL DEFINITION OF JAVA  Java is a simple, small, object oriented, distributed, interpreted, robust, secure, architecture neutral, portable, high performance, multithreaded and dynamic language.

15 Simple  Java is close to C/C++  Eliminate several poorly understood, confusing and rarely used features of C++ like multiple inheritance, operator overloading, header files, pointer arithmetic, structures, unions, multi dimensional arrays, etc.  Java programmers need not to worry about memory mgt, it has its own memory mgt.  It has embedded auto garbage collection for memory mgt.

16 Small  Goal of Java was to produce programs that run on small machines.  Most of Java programs can run on machine that has 4MB of RAM.

17 Object Oriented  Focuses on defining data as objects and the methods that may be applied to those objects.

18 Distributed  Support client server applications.  Share both information and data processing workload either on server or on client.  Objects in Java can be loaded from local machine or remote machine.  Java applications easily communicate with TCP/IP protocols like HTTP and FTP.  Multiple designers at multiple locations can collaborate on a single project.

19 Interpreted and Compiled  JVM interprets 20% of Java code.  A programmer first compiles Java source code into byte code using Java compiler. This byte code is binary and architecture neutral.  This byte code is not complete until interpreted by a Java run time environment usually Java enabled browser.  Since each Java run time environment is for a specific platform the byte code is going to work on that specific platform.  The downside of this is that it takes longer time to load.

20 Robust  The more robust a programming environment is, the less likely it is to cause the computer to ‘crash’ and the more likely it is to be bug free.  Strongly typed language i.e. extensive data type checking is done at compile time.  Java programs cant cause crash because it does not have permission to access all of the computers memory.  Java programs can access only restricted area of memory.

21 Secure  Java programs are always contained under the complete control of the operating system and its run time environment (JVM).  Java byte codes are verified by the Java compiler.  These byte codes are not platform specific and contain extra information. This information can be used to verify the programs legality and security violations.

22 Architecture Neutral  It can work on multiple networks, variety of CPUs and various O/S.  Java compiler generates an architecture neutral codes. That can be run on a number of O/S and H/W platforms provided that system is running a JVM.

23 Portable  Java compiler is written in Java and run time environment is written in ANSI C.  The Java interpreter can execute Java byte code on any machine to which the interpreter has been ported.  Developers are need not to worry about Java for Unix, Java for Windows, Java for Novell Netware, Java for Sun Solaris.

24 Multi-Threaded  Java users don’t have to wait for the application to finish one task before beginning another.

25 Dynamic  Run time linking with objects.

26 Java Features: Summary Simple Secure Portable Object-oriented Robust Multithreaded Architecture-neutral Interpreted High-performance Distributed Dynamic


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