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The North Woods #7. Our present day north woods got their first start after the last glacial period about 12,000 years ago.

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Presentation on theme: "The North Woods #7. Our present day north woods got their first start after the last glacial period about 12,000 years ago."— Presentation transcript:

1 The North Woods #7

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3 Our present day north woods got their first start after the last glacial period about 12,000 years ago.

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10 Glacial erratic

11 Major Land Areas Uniform Climate dominated by characteristic Plants Biomes

12 New England began as aTundra : The Not-So Barren Land coldest of all the biomes coldest of all the biomes comes from the Finnish word tunturia, meaning treeless plain comes from the Finnish word tunturia, meaning treeless plain frost-molded landscapes frost-molded landscapes extremely low temperatures extremely low temperatures little precipitation little precipitation poor nutrients poor nutrients short growing seasons short growing seasons

13 Tundra : Notice where it exists today

14 Tundra : The Not-So Barren Land Temperature growing season ranges from 50 to 60 days growing season ranges from 50 to 60 days average winter temperature is -34° C (-30° F) average winter temperature is -34° C (-30° F) average summer temperature is 3-12° C (37-54° F) which enables this biome to sustain life average summer temperature is 3-12° C (37-54° F) which enables this biome to sustain life

15 Tundra 10 to 12,000 yrs ago

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17 The story of our forest is a story of succession. First forests were First forests were Boreal forests (taiga) Boreal forests (taiga) Succession is the orderly replacement of one species by another over time. Succession is the orderly replacement of one species by another over time.

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19 Boreal forests, or taiga represent the largest terrestrial biome today represent the largest terrestrial biome today Occurs between 50 and 60 degrees north latitudes Occurs between 50 and 60 degrees north latitudes seasons are divided into short, moist, and moderately warm summers and long, cold, and dry winters seasons are divided into short, moist, and moderately warm summers and long, cold, and dry winters length of the growing season in boreal forests is 130 days length of the growing season in boreal forests is 130 days

20 Boreal forests, or taiga

21 Temperatures are very low Temperatures are very low Precipitation is primarily in the form of snow, cm annually Precipitation is primarily in the form of snow, cm annually Soil is thin, nutrient-poor, and acidic Soil is thin, nutrient-poor, and acidic Canopy permits low light penetration, and as a result, understory is limited Canopy permits low light penetration, and as a result, understory is limited

22 Successional Story Glacial Till, rubble with little nutrient, soil or organic matter. Glacial Till, rubble with little nutrient, soil or organic matter. Seed from a species that has hard shell, resist desiccation, possibly able to live with nitrogen fixers such as legumes.-Pioneer species Seed from a species that has hard shell, resist desiccation, possibly able to live with nitrogen fixers such as legumes.-Pioneer species Small plant begins to grow, leaves fall nearby and decompose. Small plant begins to grow, leaves fall nearby and decompose. Organic matter enriches the soil and new species move in. Organic matter enriches the soil and new species move in. –Possibly hardy grasses….

23 Succession continues As more small species move in, more soil is altered with nutrients, organic matter still area cold, little decomposition, POOR SOILS As more small species move in, more soil is altered with nutrients, organic matter still area cold, little decomposition, POOR SOILS Greater moisture holding capacity and the first few trees move in. Greater moisture holding capacity and the first few trees move in. Conifers Conifers Conifers grow tall quickly and shade out the smaller plants. Conifers grow tall quickly and shade out the smaller plants. The Pioneers have been replaced. Succession The Pioneers have been replaced. Succession

24 Spruce Fir Woodland Spruce and Fir dominate the high forests, cold hollows Spruce and Fir dominate the high forests, cold hollows Adaptations Adaptations –Tolerate extreme temperatures to -80degF –Tolerate nutrient poor soils, cold environment, little decomposition. –Drop needles, acidic and acidify the soils. –Short summers, long winters, needles covered with thick cuticle.

25 Conifers Balsam Fir Balsam Fir Red Spruce Red Spruce Black Spruce Black Spruce White Pine White Pine Hemlock Hemlock

26 Taiga Plants Plants Balsam Fir Black Spruce Douglas-fir Black Spruce Douglas-fir Paper Birch Eastern Red Cedar Jack Pine Siberian White Fir White Poplar Spruce White Spruce White Spruce

27 Taiga Animals Taiga Animals American Black Bear Bald Eagle Bobcat Canadian Lynx Gray Wolf Grizzly Bear Long-Eared Owl Red Fox River Otter Snowshoe Rabbit Wolverine

28 Boreal forests, or taiga

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31 Balsam Fir Abies balsamaea

32 White Spruce Picea

33 Hemlock Tsuga canadensis

34 White Pine Pinus strobus

35 Evergreen or Conifer Both types must photosynthesize Both types must photosynthesize Evergreens have needles, covered with waxy coating and last several years (at most), more inefficient, Live in nutrient poor soils, short growing season, cold habitat Deciduous trees, Broad leaves burst out, no greater surface area, furious at photosynthesis, last one year Much more buck for your bang Live in nutrient rich soils, longer growing season varied habitat but summer must be long enough to produce food for the year.

36 Evergreen Advantage Small needles, covered with thick cuticle, drop individually year round so conifers Photosynthesize much of the year Small needles, covered with thick cuticle, drop individually year round so conifers Photosynthesize much of the year Photosynthesis stops with active growth, soils frozen. Chloroplasts clump together in an inactive state. Photosynthesis stops with active growth, soils frozen. Chloroplasts clump together in an inactive state. –Experiment to measure starch content. None found even through brief periods of midwinter thaw

37 Evergreen Advantage Primary advantage is not dropping the needles…Nutrient conservation Primary advantage is not dropping the needles…Nutrient conservation All plant must obtain the machinery (leaves) to make its food and that takes lots of energy. All plant must obtain the machinery (leaves) to make its food and that takes lots of energy. As the machinery gets old, production slows, needles less efficient with age. BUT As the machinery gets old, production slows, needles less efficient with age. BUT Conifers machines have more time to produce more energy and can reinvest that energy more regularly to make new machinery… needles. Conifers machines have more time to produce more energy and can reinvest that energy more regularly to make new machinery… needles.

38 Evergreen Advantage Consider green plants need nutrients and energy to make the leaves. Consider green plants need nutrients and energy to make the leaves. Photosynthesis requires light energy, carbon dioxide and water to produce sugar. Photosynthesis requires light energy, carbon dioxide and water to produce sugar. If nutrients are limited Conifers are better off because stays on the tree much longer, period of years. If nutrients are limited Conifers are better off because stays on the tree much longer, period of years. Evergreens conserve nutrients and that is possibly the greatest advantage!

39 Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem Dominant Dominant vegetation –Northern –Northern Hardwood Forests These These forest support their own unique communities of flora and fauna. What What animals would you expect to find here?

40 Divide into Six groups for Sites Coniferous vs deciduous Coniferous vs deciduous Hemlock strategy vs Pine Hemlock strategy vs Pine Reproductive stragies Reproductive stragies Broadleaf vs needle Broadleaf vs needle Animals that depend on the trees Animals that depend on the trees Diseases, pests, invasive species Diseases, pests, invasive species History of the Park History of the Park

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49 Poet Seat Use the information from class to describe the formation of the Poet Seat ecosystem.


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