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Defense Integration in Europe: Enhancing Europe’s Defense Capabilities for New Missions The Hague, December 14, 2005 Michèle A. Flournoy Senior Advisor.

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Presentation on theme: "Defense Integration in Europe: Enhancing Europe’s Defense Capabilities for New Missions The Hague, December 14, 2005 Michèle A. Flournoy Senior Advisor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Defense Integration in Europe: Enhancing Europe’s Defense Capabilities for New Missions The Hague, December 14, 2005 Michèle A. Flournoy Senior Advisor Center for Strategic and International Studies

2 Agenda  Purpose  Premises  Recommendations  For European Countries  Country clusters to address capability shortfalls  For NATO  For the EU  For the EU-NATO relationship

3 Purpose To identify tangible ways in which European countries – working together and in conjunction with NATO and the EU -- can create the military capabilities needed to support their security strategies within projected resource constraints

4 Premise #1 Europe faces new security challenges that require new military and civilian capabilities In light of: TerrorismTerrorism Proliferation of WMDProliferation of WMD Regional conflictsRegional conflicts State failureState failure Organized crimeOrganized crime European forces must be: Deployable out of areaDeployable out of area SustainableSustainable Able to conduct multipleAble to conduct multiple simultaneous operations simultaneous operations InteroperableInteroperable AdaptableAdaptable

5 EU/ECAPNATO/PCC Attack Helicopters/Support Helicopters Theater Ballistic Missile Defense Deployable Communication Modules Medical Role 3/Medical Collective Protection Role 3 Headquarters (OHQ, FHQ, CCHQs) Carrier Based Air Power Strategic ISR IMINT Collection Early Warning and Distant Detection Strategic Level Combat Search and Rescue Deployable combat support and combat service support units. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Protection Strategic Air and Sea Lift Air-to-Air Refueling Combat Effectiveness, including Precision Guided Munitions and Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses Unmanned Air Vehicles Surveillance and Target Acquisition units Command, Control and Communications Air-to-Ground Surveillance Special Operations Forces AREAS OF OVERLAP European Defense Capability Shortfalls

6 Premise #2 Given projected resource constraints, Europe cannot meet emerging military requirements unless it pursues greater defense integration Given projected resource constraints, Europe cannot meet emerging military requirements unless it pursues greater defense integration

7 Future Resource Constraints Future Public Benefits to the Elderly, as a % of GDP Source: CSIS Global Ageing Initiative

8 What is Defense Integration? Coordinating the efforts of individual European countries, the EU, and NATO to create an enhanced set of collective defense capabilities and supporting processes to meet Europe’s future security needs.

9 Defense Integration Strategies Develop compatible visions of requirements, roles and responsibilities Develop compatible visions of requirements, roles and responsibilities Cooperative research and procurement Cooperative research and procurement Pool resources to field multinational capabilities/units, share infrastructure Pool resources to field multinational capabilities/units, share infrastructure National development of specialized capabilities National development of specialized capabilities

10 Premise #3 European defense integration is in the interests of both sides of the Atlantic European defense integration is in the interests of both sides of the Atlantic  In Europe’s interest to have military capabilities needed to implement its strategy, strengthen diplomacy  In United States’ interest to have Europe as a more capable partner

11 Individual Countries

12 Recommendations for Individual Nations Forge complementary transformation visions and plans through NATO and EU Forge complementary transformation visions and plans through NATO and EU  Enhance transparency, collaboration Aim to spend no more than 40% of defense budgets on personnel and 25% on modernization Aim to spend no more than 40% of defense budgets on personnel and 25% on modernization Eliminate or transform conscriptions Eliminate or transform conscriptions Redesign home guard and territorial defense forces to be more cost effective Redesign home guard and territorial defense forces to be more cost effective Reinvest savings in capability enhancement Reinvest savings in capability enhancement Stabilize defense spending via five-year plans and budgets Stabilize defense spending via five-year plans and budgets

13 Recommendations for Individual Nations II Create incentives for military officers to gain combined operations/unit experience Create incentives for military officers to gain combined operations/unit experience Forge service partnerships across national boundaries Forge service partnerships across national boundaries Pool broader range of capability areas and accelerate pooling of infrastructure and logistics Pool broader range of capability areas and accelerate pooling of infrastructure and logistics Form ‘core capability groups’ to develop niche capabilities and ensure depth of capability Form ‘core capability groups’ to develop niche capabilities and ensure depth of capability Develop “country clusters” to address critical capability shortfalls Develop “country clusters” to address critical capability shortfalls

14 “Country Cluster” Methodology Identify critical capability shortfalls that have not been adequately addressed Identify critical capability shortfalls that have not been adequately addressed For each area, identify cluster of countries with comparative advantage For each area, identify cluster of countries with comparative advantage  Operational capability/experience  National level of ambition  Political leadership  Historical or political-military ties  Relevant industrial capacity/expertise Determine best institutional context(s) for taking action Determine best institutional context(s) for taking action

15 Capability Areas Examined Strategic sealift Strategic sealift Strategic airlift Strategic airlift Air-to-air refueling Air-to-air refueling Deployable logistics Deployable logistics C4ISR C4ISR  AGS, Space, or UAVs CBRN defense CBRN defense Precision munitions Precision munitions Special Operations Special Operations Deployable follow-on forces Deployable follow-on forces

16 NATO

17 NATO Recommendations Rethink 1999 Strategic Concept Overhaul and integrate defense planning process Leverage ACT as European center of gravity for requirements definition and force planning Give ACT lead for reinvigorating PCC

18 NATO Recommendations II Strengthen NRF with greater focus on key enablers and enhanced U.S. participation Enhance NATO capabilities for stabilization and reconstruction operations Create a common fund for NATO operations Transform NATO headquarters.

19 European Union

20 EU Recommendations Accelerate Comprehensive Capabilities Development Process Accelerate Comprehensive Capabilities Development Process Reinvigorate ECAP within EDA Reinvigorate ECAP within EDA Empower EDA to do more than coordinate Empower EDA to do more than coordinate  Develop close collaboration with ACT  Give EDA a large research and technology budget

21 EU Recommendations II Strengthen Battlegroups Strengthen Battlegroups  Assess quality / readiness of forces committed  Conduct joint training exercises  Develop maritime and air Battlegroups Expand common fund for operations Expand common fund for operations Enhance civilian capabilities Enhance civilian capabilities Expand Structured Cooperation Expand Structured Cooperation  Enable members with greatest interest and capabilities to pursue greater levels of cooperation with EU framework

22 EU – NATO

23 EU-NATO Recommendations Expand and deepen EU-NATO strategic dialogue Expand and deepen EU-NATO strategic dialogue Cooperate on defense planning Cooperate on defense planning  Establish close cooperation between ACT and EDA to develop common tools, metrics Strengthen PCC/ECAP links Strengthen PCC/ECAP links Redouble efforts to solve information sharing problems Redouble efforts to solve information sharing problems

24 EU-NATO Recommendations II De-conflict force commitments De-conflict force commitments  Hold periodic force commitment review conferences  Designate DSACEUR as ‘strategic coordinator’ Consolidate coordination cells Consolidate coordination cells Create a Berlin Plus in reverse Create a Berlin Plus in reverse

25 Bottom Line Substantial gap between Europe’s security and capabilities Substantial gap between Europe’s security and capabilities  Current initiatives inadequate Defense budgets generally flat or in decline Defense budgets generally flat or in decline Requires a more integrated approach to defense planning and investment Requires a more integrated approach to defense planning and investment  Compatible visions of requirements, roles and responsibilities  Pooling of capabilities and infrastructure  National specialized capabilities

26 Your thoughts and questions?


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