Page - 3 National Focus Shifts to Water 1993 - Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee 403,000 illnesses Estimated 100+ deaths 25 lawsuits, continuing over 6 years ($millions) They never violated any drinking water standards. Data Source: New England Journal of Medicine, July 21, 1994, Vol. 331, No. 3, pp 161-167.
Page - 5 Time Had Come to Reinvest in Water Utility 1900’s facilities ready for retirement 1994 - Wide-scale "Study" of treatment plants began at Minneapolis 1994 – 1999 Studies found: Watershed is much more vulnerable to “Crypto” than Milwaukee Recommended 99.9999% removal (6.0 LRV) to address the risk (note: later EPA regulations are less stringent) "Microsporidium" found (elsewhere) even smaller than "Crypto"
Page - 6 Solution - Ultrafiltration Membranes Module Divisions for even flow distribution By-pass tubes Highly porous membrane
Page - 7 How to Sell a $160M Program Sincere and prudent approach Gain grass roots support Public Health officials Academia Citizen advocacy groups Regulators Work closely and often with Council and Mayor
Page - 8 MWW Treatment System Mississippi RIVER RECARBONATIONRESERVOIR 75 MG BYPASS ULTRAFILTRATION RESERVOIR MIX / COAG. / FLOC. / SETTLE SAND FILTERS SOFTENING TO DISTRIBUTION
Page - 10 The Numbers 377 square feet of Membrane surface per module (about 9,600 fibers per module) 4 modules per vessel 28 vessels per UF Unit 40 UF Units 1,688,960 sq. feet of Membrane Area 43,008,000 = total number of fibers
Page - 16 How Much Did it Cost? Ultrafiltration equipment $17 Million Building, installation ancillary plant $ 36 Million
Page - 17 Acknowledgements Adam J. Kramer, P.E. Director of Water Works (Retired 6/3/05) Shahin Rezania, P.E. Interim Director of Water Works Dale Folen, P.E. Project Manager Annika Bankston, P.E. Project Engineer, Membrane Specialist Dozens of other City Employees 100+ Black & Veatch Staff