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Common Stocks.

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Presentation on theme: "Common Stocks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common Stocks

2 Common Stocks Learning Goals
Explain the investment appeal of common stocks and why individuals like to invest in them. Describe stock returns from a historical perspective and understand how current returns measure up to historical standards of performance. Discuss the basic features of common stocks, including issue characteristics, stock quotations, and transaction costs.

3 Common Stocks Learning Goals (cont’d)
Understand the different kinds of common stock values. Discuss common stock dividends, types of dividends, and dividend reinvestment plans. Describe various types of common stocks, including foreign stocks, and note how stocks can be used as investments.

4 The Appeal of Common Stocks
Residual Owners: stockholders of a firm are the owners, who are entitled to dividend income and a prorated share of the firm’s earnings only after all the firm’s other obligations have been met Stocks allow investors to tailor investments to meet individual needs and preferences Stocks may provide a steady stream of current income through dividends Stocks may increase in value over time through capital gains

5 Table 6.1 Historical Returns on the Standard and Poor’s 500, 1950-2010

6 Figure 6.1 A Snapshot of U.S. Stock Prices and Housing Indexes (mid-2003 through mid-2012)
(Source: Data from Yahoo! Finance and Standard & Poor’s.)

7 From Stock Prices to Stock Returns
Stock Returns: take into account both price changes and dividend income Returns from capital gains range from an average of 15.3% during the 1990s to -2.7% from 2000–2010 Returns from dividends vary too, but not nearly as much, ranging from 5.4% in the 1950s to 1.8% since 2000 The big returns (or losses) come from capital gains

8 From Stock Prices to Stock Returns (cont’d)
Stocks generally earn positive returns over long periods of time. From 1950–2000, the average total return on the S&P 500 was 11% per year Investing in stocks is clearly not without risk From 2000–2010, the U.S. stock market lost 1% per year

9 What is a Bear Market? Routine Decline: a drop of 5% or more in one of the major market indexes, like the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) Correction: a drop of 10% or more in one of the major market indexes Bear Market: a drop of 20% or more in one of the major market indexes Comment: These are rule of thumb numbers, not exact science.

10 Advantages of Stock Ownership
Provide opportunity for higher returns than other investments Over past 100 years, stocks earned annual returns that we roughly double the returns provided by corporate bonds Good inflation hedge since returns typically exceed the rate of inflation Easy to buy and sell stocks Price and market information is easy to find in financial media Unit cost per share of stock is low enough to encourage ownership

11 Disadvantages of Stock Ownership
Stocks are subject to many different kinds of risk: Business risk Financial risk Purchasing power risk: Chance that return lags inflation rate Market risk: market goes up and down Event risk: corporate event Hard to predict which stocks will go up in value due to wide swings in profits and general stock market performance Low current income compared to other investment alternatives

12 Figure 6.2 The Current Income of Stocks and Bonds
(Source: Data from Federal Reserve Board of Governors and

13 Basic Characteristics of Common Stock
Equity Capital: evidence of ownership position in a firm, in the form of shares of common stock. This is why stocks are sometimes called “equities” Publicly Traded Issues: shares of stock that are readily available to the general market and are bought and sold in the open market Public Offering: an offering to sell to the investing public a set number of shares of a firm’s stock at a specified price

14 Basic Characteristics of Common Stock (cont’d)
Rights Offering: an offering of a new issue of stock to existing stockholders, who may purchase new shares in proportion to their current ownership Stock Spin-Off: conversion of one of a firm’s subsidiaries to a stand-alone company by distribution of stock in the new company to existing shareholders

15 Basic Characteristics of Common Stock (cont’d)
Stock Split: when a company increases the number of shares outstanding by exchanging a specified number of new shares of stock for each outstanding share Usually done to lower the stock price to make it more attractive to investors Stockholders end up with more shares of stock that sells for a lower price Investor with 200 shares in a 2-for-1 stock split would have 400 shares after the stock split If the stock price was $100 before the split, the price would be near $50 after the split

16 Basic Characteristics of Common Stock (cont’d)
Treasury Stock: shares of stock that were originally sold by the company and have been repurchased by the company. Share repurchases are often called “buybacks.” Reduces the number of shares outstanding to public Companies buyback when they believe stock is undervalued and a good buy Companies may try to raise undervalued stock price or prop up overvalued stock price May be used for mergers, acquisitions or employee stock option plans

17 Basic Characteristics of Common Stock (cont’d)
Classified Common Stock: common stock issued in different classes, each of which offers different privileges and benefits to its holders Different shares may have different voting rights Often used to allow a relatively small group to control the voting of a publicly-trade company Ford family owns “B” shares and other investors own “A” shares; Ford family controls 40% of Ford Motor Company May have different dividend payout schedules

18 Figure 6.4 A Stock Quote for Abercrombie & Fitch
(Source: Yahoo! Finance,

19 Watch Those Transaction Costs
Round-Lot: buying 100 shares of stock or multiples of 100 shares Odd-Lot: buying less than 100 shares of stock Buying odd lots or small numbers of shares can result in higher costs to buy and sell shares Frequent trading can increase transactions costs substantially

20 Common Stock Values Par Value: the stated, or face, value of a stock
Mainly an accounting term and not very useful to investors Book Value: the amount of stockholders’ equity The difference between the company’s assets minus the company’s liabilities and preferred stock Market Value: the current price of the stock in the stock market

21 Common Stock Values Market Capitalization: the overall current value of the company in the stock market Total number of shares outstanding multiplied by the market value per share Investment Value: the amount that investors believe the stock should be trading for, or what they think it’s worth Probably the most important measure for a stockholder

22 Dividends Dividend income is one of the two basic sources of return to investors Dividend income is more predictable than capital gains, so preferred by investors seeking lower risk Through 2012, dividends were taxed at maximum 15% tax rate, same as capital gains Since 2013, dividend tax rate is as high as 20% for high earners (not counting a 3.8% Medicare tax on investment income that high earners must also pay) Dividends tend to increase over time as companies’ earnings grow; average annual increase around 3% to 5% Dividends represent the return of part of the profit of the company to the owners, the stockholders

23 Key Dates for Dividends

24 Dividends and Earnings Per Share
Earnings Per Share: the amount of annual earnings available to common stockholders, stated on a per-share basis Earnings are important to stock price Earnings help determine dividend payouts

25 Dividends and Dividend Yield
Dividend Yield: a measure to relate dividends to share price on a percentage basis Indicates the rate of current income earned on the investment dollar Convenient method to compare income return to other investment alternatives

26 Dividends and Dividend Payout Ratio
Dividend Payout Ratio: the portion of earnings per share (EPS) that a firm pays out as dividends Companies are not required to pay dividends Some companies have high EPS, but reinvest all money back into company

27 Other Dividend Characteristics
Stock Dividend: payment of a dividend in the form of additional shares of stock Dividend Reinvestment Plans (DRIPs): plans where cash dividends are automatically reinvested into additional shares of the firm’s common stock Over 1,000 companies offer DRIPs Usually have no brokerage fees Uses dollar-cost averaging Still subject to tax

28 Types of Stock Blue Chip Stocks: financially strong, high-quality stocks with long and stable records of earnings and dividends Companies are leaders in their industries Relatively lower risk due to financial stability of company Popular with investing public looking for steady growth potential, perhaps dividend income Provide shelter during unsettled markets Examples: AT&T, Chevron, Johnson & Johnson, McDonald’s, Pfizer

29 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Income Stocks: stocks with long and sustained records of paying higher-than average dividends Good for investors looking for relatively safe and high level of current income Dividends tend to increase over time (unlike interest payments on bonds) Some companies pay high dividends because they offer limited growth potential More subject to interest rate risk Examples: Duke Energy, Conagra Foods, General Mills, Altria Group

30 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Growth Stocks: stocks that experience high rates of growth in operations and earnings Have sustained rate of growth in earnings above general market Investors expect higher price appreciation due to increasing earnings Riskier investment because price may fall if earnings growth cannot be maintained May include blue chip stocks as well as speculative stocks Typically pay little or no dividends Examples: Amazon, Apple, Google, eBay, Berkshire Hathaway, Starbucks

31 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Tech Stocks: stocks representing the technology sector of the market Range from speculative stocks of small companies that have never shown a profit to blue chip stocks of large companies that are growth-oriented Potential for attractive returns Considerable risk and volatility Difficult to put value on due to erratic or no earnings Examples: Microsoft, Cisco Systems, Yahoo!, NVIDIA, SanDisk, Intel, Electronic Arts

32 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Speculative Stocks: stocks that offer potential for substantial price appreciation, usually due to some special situation such as a new product Companies lack sustained track record of business and financial success Earnings may be uncertain or highly unstable Potential for substantial price appreciation Stock price subject to wide swings up and down in value Examples: Sirius XM Radio, Dreamworks Animation, Liberty Media, Under Armour

33 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Cyclical Stocks: stocks whose earnings and overall market performance are closely linked to the general state of the economy Stock price tends to move up and down with the business cycle Tend to do well when economy is growing, especially in early stages of economic recovery Tend to do poorly in slowing economy Best for investors willing to move in and out of market as economy changes Examples: Alcoa, Caterpillar, Genuine Parts, Lennar, Brunswick, Timken

34 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Defensive Stocks: stocks that tend to hold their value, and even do well, when the economy starts to falter Stock price remains stable or increases when general economy is slowing Products are staples that people use in good times and bad times, such as electricity, beverages, foods and drugs Gold stocks are a form of defensive stock Best for aggressive investors looking for “parking place” during slow economy Examples: Walmart, Checkpoint Systems, WD-40

35 Market Capitalization
U.S. stock market segments based on stock market capitalization: Small-Cap Stocks: less than $2 billion Mid-Cap Stocks: $2 billion to $10 billion Large-Cap Stocks: more than $10 billion

36 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Large-Cap Stocks: large companies with market capitalizations over $10 billion Number of companies is smaller, but account for 80% to 90% of the total market value of all U.S. equities Bigger is not necessarily better Tend to lag behind small-cap and mid-cap stocks, but typically have less volatility Examples: Walmart, Exxon Mobil, Apple

37 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Mid-Cap Stocks: medium-sized companies with market capitalizations between $2 billion and $10 billion Provide opportunity for greater capital appreciation than Large-Cap stocks, but less price volatility than Small-Cap stocks Usually have long-term track records for profits and stock valuation “Baby Blues” offer same characteristics of Blue Chip stocks except size Examples: Logitech, American Eagle Outfitters, Garmin Ltd.

38 Types of Stock (cont’d)
Small-Cap Stocks: small companies with market capitalizations less than $2 billion Provide opportunity for above-average returns (or losses) Usually do not have a financial track record Earnings tend to grow in spurts and can have dramatic impact on stock price Usually not widely-traded; liquidity is an issue “Initial Public Offerings” (IPOs) Examples: Callaway Golf, Wendy’s, Shoe Carnival

39 Investing in Foreign Stocks
Globalization of financial markets is growing U.S. equity market represents roughly 35% of world equity markets Six countries make up 80% of world equity market U.S. market remains largest equity market in world with a total value of about $16 trillion in 2012 Some of the returns in non-U.S. markets are due to currency exchange rates, and not just markets themselves

40 Going Global Buying Shares Directly in Foreign Markets
Most adventuresome approach Logistical problems: fluctuating currency rates, different regulatory and accounting standards, tax problems, “red tape” Buying American Depositary Shares (ADSs) Simpler approach Bought and sold on U.S. markets just like stocks in U.S. companies Transactions are in U.S. dollars Buying International Mutual Funds

41 Going Global International investing is more complex and riskier than domestic investing International investing requires investors to be right on more factors: Must pick right stock Must pick right market Must pick correct direction for currency exchange rate fluctuations

42 Returns on International Investments
Stronger U.S. dollar has negative impact on foreign investments Weaker U.S. dollar has positive impact on foreign investments

43 Alternative Investment Strategies
Storehouse of Value Safety of investment is primary goal Investors use high-quality blue chip and non-speculative stocks To Accumulate Capital Growth of investment is primary goal Investors use growth-oriented stocks to generate capital gains Source of Income Current income is primary goal Investors use stocks with dependable flow of dividends

44 Stock Investment Strategies
Buy-and-Hold Investors buy high-quality stocks and hold them for extended time periods Goal may be current income and/or capital gains Investors often add to existing stocks over time Very conservative approach; value-oriented

45 Stock Investment Strategies (cont’d)
Current Income Investors buy stocks that have high dividend yields Safety of principal and stability of income are primary goals May be preferable to bonds because dividends levels tend to increase over time Often used to provide to supplement other income, such as in retirement

46 Stock Investment Strategies (cont’d)
Quality Long-Term Growth Investors buy high-quality growth stocks, mid-cap stocks and tech stocks Capital gains are primary goal Higher level of risk due to emphasis on capital gains Significant trading of stocks may occur over time Diversification is used to spread risk “Total Return Approach” is version that emphasizes both capital gains and high income

47 Stock Investment Strategies (cont’d)
Aggressive Stock Management Investors buy high-quality growth stocks, blue chip stocks, mid-cap stocks, tech stocks and cyclical stocks Capital gains are primary goal High level of risk due to emphasis on capital gains Investors aggressively trade in and out of stocks, often holding for short periods Timing the market is key element Time consuming to manage

48 Stock Investment Strategies (cont’d)
Speculation and Short-Term Trading Also called “day trading” Investors buy speculative stocks, small-cap stocks and tech stocks Capital gains are primary goal Highest level of risk due to emphasis on capital gains in short time period Investors aggressively trade in and out of stocks, often holding for extremely short periods Looking for “big score” on unknown stock Time consuming & high trading costs

49 Table 6.2 Cash or Reinvested Dividends?

50 Figure 6.7 Average Annual Stock Returns Around the World (1900 to 2011)
(Source: Elroy Dimson, Paul Marsh, and Mike Staunton, Credit Suisse Global Investment Returns Sourcebook 2012,

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