Presentation on theme: "Religion This chapter looks at religion as an institution, as well as at the ways that people express their religious beliefs. Colleen O’Sullivan Katelyn."— Presentation transcript:
Religion This chapter looks at religion as an institution, as well as at the ways that people express their religious beliefs. Colleen O’Sullivan Katelyn Finneran Jordan Murphy Ashley Wilson Breana Fletcher Period 7
Religion- a unified system of beliefs and practices concerned with sacred things. Sacred- things and ideas that are set apart and given a special meaning that goes beyond, or transcends, immediate existence. Profane- nonsacred aspects of life. Legitimate- justify or give official approval to. Spirit of Capitalism- the obligation to reinvest money in business rather than spend it. Protestant ethic- a set of values, norms, beliefs, and attitudes stressing hard work, thrift, and self-discipline. Church- life encompassing religious organization to which all members of a society belong. Denomination- one of several religious organizations that most members of a society accept as legitimate.
Sect- a religious organization formed when members of an existing religious organization breaks away in an attempt to reform the “parent” group Cult- religious organization whose characteristics are not drawn from existing religious traditions within a society. Religiosity- the types of religious attitudes and behavior people display in their everyday lives Secularization- process through which the sacred loses influence over society. Fundamentalism- based on the desire to resist secularization and to adhere closely to traditional religious beliefs, rituals, and doctrines.
14.1 Religion and Sociology The Sociological Meaning of Religion Sociologists concluded that every religion separates the sacred from the profane. The particular things considered sacred vary from culture to culture Ex- Bolivian tin makers attach sacred meaning to figures of the devil and of bulls. This would not be sacred to Americans because it is not part of their culture.
14.2 Theoretical Perspectives Function and Religion -Religion gives formal approval to existing social arrangements Legitimate: to justify or give official approval to -Religion encourages a sense of unity -Religion provides a sense of understanding -Religion promotes a sense of belonging
14.2 continued Conflict Theory and Religion -What did Marx say about religion? Marx believed that once people have created a unified system of sacred beliefs and practices, they act as if it were something beyond their control. Religion words against social change -How did a Weber link Protestantism and capitalism? Max Weber suggested the religion sometimes encourages social change. Spirit of capitalism: the obligation of reinvest money in business rather than to spend it Protestant ethic: a set of values, norms, beliefs, and attitudes stressing hard work, thrift, and self- discipline
14.3 Religious Organization and Religiosity Religious Organization -How do sociologists distinguish among the basic types of religious organizations? Church: a life-encompassing religious organization to which all members of a society belong Denomination: one of several religious organizations that most members of a society accept as legitimate Sect: a religious organization that arises out of a desire to reform an existing religious organization Cult: a religious organization whose characteristics are not drawn from existing religious traditions within a society
14.3 continued Ways in which people express their religious interests and convictions How do people display religiosity? -Belief refers to what a person considers to be true -A ritual is a religious practice that the members of a religion are expected to perform -The intellectual dimension of religiosity may involve knowledge of holy or sacred scripture or an interest in such religious aspects of human existence as evil, suffering, and death -Experience encompasses certain feelings attached to religious expression
14.4 Religion in the United States The Development of Religion in America Religious freedom was one of the many reasons the Puritans came to America. “Americans have interpreted their history as having religious meaning” (Bellah et al. 1992:2) The ideas of separation of church and state and freedom of religious expression are cornerstones of American life. Secularization Through secularization, the sacred loses influence over society. Ex- formal education originally was a function of religion. Now with the division of church and state, religion is a forbidden topic in public schools
Religion in Public Schools
14.4 continued Religious Preferences Religion and Class Religious affiliation is related to social class Ex- Presbyterians, Episcopalians and Jews are at the top. Below are Catholics, Lutherans, and Methodists, followed by Baptists.
Religious Activity Religiosity is the way in which people express their religious interests and convictions. The five ways in which people display religiosity are: Belief: refers to what a group considers true Ritual: a religious practice that is expected to be performed Intellectual dimension: the knowledge of holy or sacred scripture or interests; for example views on life, death, evil, suffering Experience: feelings attached to religious expression; for example someone who feels close to a deity when they pray Consequences: decisions and commitments people make as a result of religious beliefs, rituals, knowledge, or experiences. *Get into groups of 5-6 people and come up with your own religion that includes your beliefs, rituals, intellectual dimensions, experiences, and consequences.