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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-1 Chapter 3 Measuring Yield

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-2 Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you will understand how to calculate the yield on any investment how to calculate the current yield, yield to maturity, yield to call, yield to put, and cash flow yield how to calculate the yield for a portfolio how to calculate the discount margin for a floating- rate security the three potential sources of a bond’s return

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-3 Learning Objectives (continued) After reading this chapter, you will understand how to calculate the yield on any investment what reinvestment risk is the limitations of conventional yield measures how to calculate the total return for a bond why the total return is superior to conventional yield measures how to use horizon analysis to assess the potential return

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-4 Computing the Yield or Internal Rate of Return on any Investment The yield on any investment is the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows from the investment equal to the price (or cost) of the investment. Mathematically, the yield on any investment, y, is the interest rate that satisfies the equation. where P = price of the investment, CF = cash flow in year t =1,2,3,… N, y = yield calculated from this relationship (and also called the internal rate of return), N = number of years.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-5 Computing the Yield or Internal Rate of Return on any Investment (continued) Absent a financial calculator or computer software, solving for the yield (y) requires a trial-and-error (iterative) procedure. The objective is to find the yield that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to the price. Keep in mind that the yield computed is the yield for the period. That is, if the cash flows are semiannual, the yield is a semiannual yield. If the cash flows are monthly, the yield is a monthly yield. To compute the simple annual interest rate, the yield for the period is multiplied by the number of periods in the year.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-6 Computing the Yield or Internal Rate of Return on any Investment (continued) Special Case: Investment with Only One Future Cash Flow When the case where there is only one future cash flow, it is not necessary to go through the time-consuming trial-and-error procedure to determine the yield. We can use the below equation:

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-7 Computing the Yield or Internal Rate of Return on any Investment (continued) Annualizing Yields To obtain an effective annual yield associated with a periodic interest rate, the following formula is used: effective annual yield = (1 + periodic interest rate) m – 1 where m is the frequency of payments per year. To illustrate, if interest is paid quarterly and the periodic interest rate is 0.08 / 4 = 0.02, then we have: effective annual yield = (1.02) 4 – 1 = 1.0824 – 1 = 0.0824 or 8.24%

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-8 Computing the Yield or Internal Rate of Return on any Investment (Continued) Annualizing Yields We can also determine the periodic interest rate that will produce a given annual interest rate by solving the effective annual yield equation for the periodic interest rate. Solving, we find that periodic interest rate = (1 + effective annual yield ) 1/m – 1 To illustrate, if the periodic quarterly interest rate that would produce an effective annual yield of 12%, then we have: periodic interest rate = (1.12) 1/4 – 1 = 1.0287 – 1 = 0.0287 or 2.87%

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-9 Computing the Yield or Internal Rate of Return on any Investment (continued) Annualizing Yields We can also determine the periodic interest rate that will produce a given annual interest rate by solving the effective annual yield equation for the periodic interest rate. Solving, we find that periodic interest rate = (1 + effective annual yield ) 1/m – 1 To illustrate, if the periodic quarterly interest rate that would produce an effective annual yield of 12%, then we have : periodic interest rate = (1.12) 1/4 – 1 = 1.0287 – 1 = 0.0287 or 2.87%

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-10 Conventional Yield Measures Bond yield measures commonly quoted by dealers and used by portfolio managers are: 1)Current Yield 2)Yield To Maturity 3)Yield To Call 4)Yield To Put 5)Yield To Worst 6)Cash Flow Yield 7)Yield (Internal Rate of Return) for a Portfolio 8)Yield Spread Measures for Floating-Rate Securities

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-11 Conventional Yield Measures (continued) 1) Current Yield Current yield relates the annual coupon interest to the market price. The formula for the current yield is: current yield = annual dollar coupon interest / price The current yield calculation takes into account only the coupon interest and no other source of return that will affect an investor’s yield. The time value of money is also ignored.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-12 Conventional Yield Measures (continued) 2) Yield To Maturity The yield to maturity is the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to the price (or initial investment). For a semiannual pay bond, the yield to maturity is found by first computing the periodic interest rate, y, which satisfies the relationship: where P = price of the bond, C = semiannual coupon interest (in dollars), M = maturity value (in dollars), and n = number of periods (number of years multiplied by 2).

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-13 Conventional Yield Measures (Continued) 2) Yield To Maturity (continued) For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate or discount rate (y) gives the yield to maturity. The yield to maturity computed on the basis of this market convention is called the bond-equivalent yield: where M = maturity value (in dollars), P = price of the bond, and n = number of periods (number of years multiplied by 2). The yield-to-maturity calculation takes into account (i) the current coupon income, (ii) any capital gain or loss realized by holding the bond to maturity, and (iii) the timing of the cash flows.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-14 Conventional Yield Measures (Continued) 3) Yield To Call The call price is the price at which the bond may be called. There is a call schedule that specifies a call price for each call date. The yield to call assumes that the issuer will call the bond at some assumed call date and the call price is specified in the call schedule. The yield to call can be expressed as follows: where M * = call price (in dollars) and n* = number of periods until the assumed call date (number of years times 2) For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate (y) gives the yield to call on a bond-equivalent basis.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-15 Conventional Yield Measures (Continued) 4) Yield To Put If an issue is putable, it means that the bondholder can force the issuer to buy the issue at a specified price. The put schedule specifies when the issue can be put and the put price. When an issue is putable, a yield to put is calculated. The yield to put is the interest rate that makes the present value of the cash flows to the assumed put date plus the put price on that date as set forth in the put schedule equal to the bond’s price. The formula for the yield to put is the same as for the yield to call, but M * is now defined as the put price and n* is the number of periods until the assumed put date. The procedure is the same as calculating the yield to maturity and the yield to call.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-16 Conventional Yield Measures (Continued) 5) Yield To Worst A practice in the industry is for an investor to calculate the yield to maturity, the yield to every possible call date, and the yield to every possible put date. The minimum of all of these yields is called the yield to worst. 6) Cash Flow Yield Amortizing securities involve cash flows that include interest plus principal repayment and the cash flow each period consists of three components: (i) coupon interest, (ii) scheduled principal repayment, and (iii) prepayments. For amortizing securities, market participants calculate a cash flow yield, which is the interest rate that will make the present value of the projected cash flows equal to the market price.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-17 Conventional Yield Measures (Continued) 7) Yield (Internal Rate of Return) for a Portfolio The yield for a portfolio of bonds is not simply the average or weighted average of the yield to maturity of the individual bond issues in the portfolio. It is computed by determining the cash flows for the portfolio and determining the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to the market value of the portfolio.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-18 Conventional Yield Measures (Continued) 8) Yield Spread Measures for Floating-Rate Securities The coupon rate for a floating-rate security changes periodically based on the coupon reset formula. This formula consists of the reference rate and the quoted margin. Since the future value for the reference rate is unknown, it is not possible to determine the cash flows. This means that a yield to maturity cannot be computed.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-19 Conventional Yield Measures (Continued) 8) Yield Spread Measures for Floating-Rate Securities Instead, there are several conventional measures used as margin or spread measures cited by market participants for floaters. These include spread for life (or simple margin), adjusted simple margin, adjusted total margin, and discount margin. The most popular of these measures is the discount margin, which estimates the average margin over the reference rate that the investor can expect to earn over the life of the security. Exhibit 3-1 shows the calculation of the discount margin for a six-year floating-rate security. (See Overhead 3-20.)

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-20 Exhibit 3-1 Calculation of the Discount Margin for a Floating-Rate Security Floating-rate security Maturity: six years Coupon rate: reference rate + 80 basis points Reset every six months Present Value of Cash Flow at Assumed Annual Margin (basis points) Period Reference Rate Cash Flow a 80848896100 1 10%5.4 5.12335.12245.12145.11955.1185 2105.4 4.86094.85904.85724.85354.8516 3105.4 4.61184.60924.60664.60134.5987 4105.4 4.37554.37224.36894.36234.3590 5105.4 4.15144.14744.14354.13564.1317 6105.4 3.93873.93423.92973.92083.9163 7105.4 3.73693.73193.72703.71713.7122 8105.4 3.54543.54013.53473.52403.5186 9105.4 3.36383.35803.35233.34093.3352 10 5.4 3.19143.18543.17943.16733.1613 11105.4 3.02793.02163.01533.00282.9965 1210105.4 56.072955.945455.818255.564755.4385 Present Value =100.000099.826999.654199.309899.1381 a For periods 1–11: cash flow = 100 (reference rate + assumed margin)(0.5); for period 12: cash flow = 100 (reference rate + assumed margin)(0.5) + 100.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-21 Potential Sources of a Bond’s Dollar Return An investor who purchases a bond can expect to receive a dollar return from one or more of these sources: i.the periodic coupon interest payments made by the issuer ii.any capital gain (or capital loss—negative dollar return) when the bond matures, is called, or is sold iii.interest income generated from reinvestment of the periodic cash flows The current yield considers only the coupon interest payments. The yield to maturity, yield to call, and cash flow yield all take into account the three components.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-22 Potential Sources of a Bond’s Dollar Return (continued) Determining the Interest-On-Interest Dollar Return The interest-on-interest component can represent a substantial portion of a bond’s potential return. The coupon interest plus interest on interest can be found by using the following equation: where C is the coupon interest r is the semiannual reinvestment rate n is the number of periods

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-23 Potential Sources of a Bond’s Dollar Return (continued) Determining the Interest-On-Interest Dollar Return The total dollar amount of coupon interest is found by multiplying the semiannual coupon interest by the number of periods: total coupon interest = nC where C is the coupon interest, r is the semiannual reinvestment rate, and n is the number of periods. The interest-on-interest component is then the difference between the coupon interest plus interest on interest and the total dollar coupon interest, as expressed by the formula

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-24 Potential Sources of a Bond’s Dollar Return (continued) Determining the Interest-On-Interest Dollar Return Example. Assume that the coupon interest (C) is $50, the semiannual reinvestment rate (r) is 4.5%, and the number of periods (n) is 40. What is the interest-on-interest? Using our equation for interest on interest and inserting in our given values we get:

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-25 Potential Sources of a Bond’s Dollar Return (continued) Yield To Maturity and Reinvestment Risk The investor realizes the yield to maturity only if the bond is held to maturity and the coupon payments can be reinvested at the computed yield to maturity. Reinvestment risk is the risk that future reinvestment rates will be less than the yield to maturity at the time the bond is purchased. There are two characteristics of a bond that determine the importance of the interest-on- interest component and therefore the degree of reinvestment risk: maturity and coupon.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-26 Potential Sources of a Bond’s Dollar Return (continued) Yield To Maturity and Reinvestment Risk For a given yield to maturity and a given coupon rate, the longer the maturity, the more dependent the bond’s total dollar return is on the interest-on-interest component in order to realize the yield to maturity at the time of purchase. For a given maturity and a given yield to maturity, higher coupon rates will make the bond’s total dollar return more dependent on the reinvestment of the coupon payments in order to produce the yield to maturity anticipated at the time of purchase.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-27 Potential Sources of a Bond’s Dollar Return (continued) Cash Flow Yield and Reinvestment Risk For amortizing securities, reinvestment risk is even greater than for nonamortizing securities. The reason is that the investor must now reinvest the periodic principal repayments in addition to the periodic coupon interest payments. Typically, for nonamortizing securities the borrower can accelerate the periodic principal repayment, in particular, a borrower will tend to prepay when interest rates decline. If a borrower prepays when interest rates decline, the investor faces greater reinvestment risk because he or she must reinvest the prepaid principal at a lower interest rate.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-28 Total Return The yield to maturity is a promised yield because at the time of purchase an investor is promised a yield, as measured by the yield to maturity, if both of the following conditions are satisfied: (i)the bond is held to maturity (ii)all coupon interest payments are reinvested at the yield to maturity The total return is a measure of yield that incorporates an explicit assumption about the reinvestment rate. The yield-to-call measure is subject to the same problems as the yield to maturity because it assumes that the: (i)bond will be held until the first call date (ii)coupon interest payments will be reinvested at the yield to call

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-29 Total Return (continued) Computing the Total Return for a Bond The idea underlying total return is simple. i.The objective is first to compute the total future dollars that will result from investing in a bond assuming a particular reinvestment rate. ii.The total return is then computed as the interest rate that will make the initial investment in the bond grow to the computed total future dollars.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-30 Applications of the Total Return Horizon Analysis Horizon analysis refers to using total return to assess performance over some investment horizon. Horizon return refers to when a total return is calculated over an investment horizon. An often-cited objection to the total return measure is that it requires the portfolio manager to formulate assumptions about reinvestment rates and future yields as well as to think in terms of an investment horizon.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-31 Calculating Yield Changes The absolute yield change (or absolute rate change) is measured in basis points and is the absolute value of the difference between the two yields as given by absolute yield change = │initial yield – new yield│ × 100. The percentage change is computed as the natural logarithm of the ratio of the change in yield as shown by percentage change yield = 100 × ln (new yield / initial yield) where ln in the natural logarithm.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3-32 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

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