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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 1 The basics of capital budgeting (chapter 11) Should we build this plant?

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 2 What is capital budgeting? Analysis of potential additions to fixed assets Long-term decisions; involve large expenditures

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 3 Steps to capital budgeting 1. Estimate CFs (inflows & outflows). 2. Assess riskiness of CFs. 3. Determine the appropriate cost of capital. 4. Find NPV and/or IRR. 5. Accept if NPV > 0 and/or IRR > WACC.

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 4 What is the difference between normal and nonnormal cash flow streams? Normal cash flow stream – Cost (negative CF) followed by a series of positive cash inflows. One change of signs. Nonnormal cash flow stream – Two or more changes of signs. Most common: Cost (negative CF), then string of positive CFs, then cost to close project. Nuclear power plant, strip mine, etc.

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 5 What is the payback period? The number of years required to recover a project’s cost, or “How long does it take to get our money back?” Calculated by adding project’s cash inflows to its cost until the cumulative cash flow for the project turns positive. Strengths - Provides an indication of a project’s risk and liquidity. - Easy to calculate and understand. Weaknesses - Ignores the time value of money. - Ignores CFs occurring after the payback period.

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 6 Calculating payback Payback L = 2 + / = 2.375 years CF t -100 10 60 100 Cumulative -100 -90 0 50 012 3 = 2.4 3080 -30 Project L Payback S = 1 + / = 1.6 years CF t -100 70 100 20 Cumulative -100 0 20 40 012 3 = 1.6 3050 -30 Project S

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 7 Discounted payback period Uses discounted cash flows rather than raw CFs. Disc Payback L = 2 + / = 2.7 years CF t -100 10 60 80 Cumulative -100 -90.91 18.79 012 3 = 2.7 60.11 -41.32 PV of CF t -100 9.09 49.59 41.3260.11 10%

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 8 Net Present Value (NPV) Sum of the PVs of all cash inflows and outflows of a project: Advantages: 1. Uses cash flows 2. Uses ALL cash flows of the project 3. Discounts ALL cash flows properly Reinvestment assumption: the NPV rule assumes that all cash flows can be reinvested at the discount rate The BEST capital budgeting method

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 9 What is Project L’s NPV? Year CF t PV of CF t 0-100 -$100 1 10 9.09 2 60 49.59 3 80 60.11 NPV L = $18.79 NPV S = $19.98

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 10 Solving for NPV: Financial calculator solution Enter CFs into the calculator’s CF register. For Texas Instruments: Press CF key - CF 0 = -100 Enter - C0 1 = 10 Enter - F0 1 = 1 Enter - C0 2 = 60 Enter - F0 2 = 1 Enter - CF 3 = 80 Enter Press NPV key 10 (I) Enter CPT to get NPV L = $18.78.

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 11 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) IRR is the discount rate that forces PV of inflows equal to cost, and the NPV = 0: Solving for IRR with a financial calculator: - Enter CFs in CF register. - Press IRR key - CPT - to get IRR L = 18.13% and IRR S = 23.56%.

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 12 Rationale for the IRR method If IRR > WACC, the project’s rate of return is greater than its costs. There is some return left over to boost stockholders’ returns. If IRR > k, accept project. If IRR < k, reject project. If projects are independent, accept both projects, as both IRR > k = 10%. If projects are mutually exclusive, accept S, because IRR s > IRR L Advantages: - Easy to understand and communicate Disadvantages: - IRR may not exist or there may be multiple IRR - Problems with mutually exclusive investments

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 13 The Scale Problem Mutually exclusive vs independent projects Independent projects – if the cash flows of one are unaffected by the acceptance of the other (see text page 343) Mutually exclusive projects – if the cash flows of one can be adversely impacted by the acceptance of the other (see text page 343) Would you rather make 100% or 50% on your investments? What if the 100% return is on a $1 investment while the 50% return is on a $1,000 investment? IRR method assumes CFs are reinvested at IRR Assuming CFs are reinvested at the opportunity cost of capital is more realistic, so NPV method is the best NPV method should be used to choose between mutually exclusive projects

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GBUS502 Vicentiu Covrig 14 Learning objectives Know the steps to capital budgeting Know how to calculate payback period, discounted payback period, NPV, IRR; the advantages and disadvantages of each method No need to prepare sections 11.6, 11.7 Recommended end-of-chapter questions: 11-2, 11-3, 11-4 Recommended end-of-chapter problems:ST-2 (without MIRR); 11-1, 11-2,11-4, 11-5, 11-6, 11-7 (without MIRR), 11-10,11-11,11-12;

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