2 1. Business Growth through Reinvestment Businesses use an income statement (usually quarterly-3 months) to determine how much capital they can reinvest in the company.This capital comes from profits.Businesses reinvest by purchasing more of the factors of production.
3 Estimating Cash FlowsBusinesses find their net income by subtracting all of its expenses (taxes, rent, loan payments, utilities, wages, salaries, resources, & depreciation) from its revenues.Depreciation, or general wear & tear on capital goods, us a non-cash charge.Net income + non-cash charges = cash flow, or the actual amount of money a business has for reinvestment.
4 Reinvesting Cash FlowReinvestment is decided by the sole proprietor, all partners, or the board of directors of the company.Business can produce more products or provide more services when reinvestment happens.A business remains profitable if reinvested cash flow is bigger than depreciation.
5 2. Growth through Mergers When businesses merge, one of the businesses gives up it identity.Reasons for Businesses Merging!1. Need money to grow that the first business cannot generate on its own.
6 Reasons for Businesses Merging! 1. Need money to grow that the first business cannot generate on its own.2. Efficiency3. To acquire new product lines or technology.4. To catch up or eliminate a rival business.5. To lose corporate identity.
7 Merger – Business Needs Money Small electronics company who has invented a new style of MP3 player needs to capitalize on its invention as soon as possible before competitors come up with the same innovation, but they lack money to make enough of the new players to get them to the market in time.Instead, it merges with Microsoft because:1) Microsoft is looking to break into the MP3 business; and2) Microsoft has the capital (money & production capabilities) to get the new player to market)
8 Mergers - Efficiency Businesses merge to eliminate up management. Businesses merge to double the number of stores.Business doubles to produce more goods at a lower price.
9 Mergers – Add new product lines A business wants to produce a comparable product to a product of another business, but it would be more cost effective to merger with the other business.Costs less to buy Sanus Corporation than develop technology independently.Apple likes Sanus Corporation’s new phone operating systemAdd technology to Iphone
10 Mergers – To Eliminate Competition Some mergers take place for one business to rapidly catch up with a competitor or to eliminate a competitor.Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines buys Celebrity Cruise to become second biggest cruise line behind Carnival.AT & T attempts to purchase T-Mobile to eliminate competition.
11 Merger – To eliminate a corporate identity. Businesses merger to change name associated with a negative connotation.Valujet mergers with Air Tran to get rid of the Valujet name after a government investigation of a plane crash in 1997 killing 110 people showed massive mechanical negligence.
12 Types of MergersHorizontal merger – two or more firms that produce the same type of product or service.
13 Types of MergersVertical Merger – firms merging that are in different steps of the manufacturing process of a product.eBay buys PayPal to use as billing service to cut down on steps needed to buy products.
14 ConglomeratesA conglomerate is a firm that has at least four businesses, each making unrelated products, none of which are responsible for a majority of its sales.Ex: RJR NabiscoDiversification!
15 Multinational Corporations A corporation that has manufacturing or service operations in a number of different countries.Multinationals pay taxes in many countries, but capitalize on cheaper labor.Countries welcome multinationals as a way for a developing country to get new technology and employment opportunities.Sometimes, multinationals are accused of siphoning off resources and underpaying.
17 Nonprofit Organizations Businesses that operate in businesslike way to promote the collective interests of its members rather than to seek financial gain for its owners.Their economic performance is sometimes hard to judge because the value of their products is hard to measure.ChurchesSchoolsHospitalsWelfare Groups
18 Cooperatives (Co-ops) A voluntary association of people formed to carry on some kind of economic activity that will benefit its members.Consumer Cooperatives – buys bulk amount of goods such as food or clothes on behalf of its members.Service Cooperatives – provides services such as insurance, credit, babysitting instead of products.Producer Cooperatives – helps members promote or sell their products.
19 Labor, Professional, & Business Organizations Labor Unions – an organization of workers formed to represent its members in various employment matters.Professional Association – agroup of people in a specializedoccupation that works to improvethe working conditions, skill level,& public perception of the profession
20 Business Organizations Chamber of Commerce – Organization that promotes the welfare of its members and the community.Chamber of Commerce helps business by:Promoting the city for new businessNeighborhood cleanups sponsored by local firmsLobbying for governments for lower business taxesEducational opportunities for small business owners.
21 Role of GovernmentSome government organization provide goods & services directly to the public.Ex.: Tennessee Valley Authority, FDIC, Postal ServiceGovernment also regulates business and industry to indirectly protect citizens and competition.Ex.: Laws governing pollution, utility regulation.