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C o m p e t e n c y 2 Reinvestment: From using texts integrally to personalizing RREALS 2010 Rachel Lalonde & Sylvia Schmidt.

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Presentation on theme: "C o m p e t e n c y 2 Reinvestment: From using texts integrally to personalizing RREALS 2010 Rachel Lalonde & Sylvia Schmidt."— Presentation transcript:

1 C o m p e t e n c y 2 Reinvestment: From using texts integrally to personalizing RREALS 2010 Rachel Lalonde & Sylvia Schmidt

2 Competency 2 Workshop Goals To better understand: ─ the concept of reinvestment ─ the role that support for learning plays in helping students become better “ reinvestors ” ─ how to evaluate students’ texts for reinvestment

3 Do our ESL students plagiarize?

4 Plagiarism: an illegal form of copying; taking another person’s work (without asking) and calling it your own. 1 There is intent to call someone else’s work your own. “... plagiarism by ESL students is rarely as a result of laziness or the inability to think for themselves. If they find part of a text that conveys the information that they wish to convey or expresses the idea that they wish to express, it is not surprising that many will simply copy the passage into their own work.” 2 In this case, the intent is to carry out the assignment. 1Adapted from: 2 ESL students and plagiarism : © Paul Shoebottom esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/plag.htm

5 Diane Pecorari recommends... “... that the focus on preventing plagiarism be shifted from post facto punishment to proactive teaching.” 3 3 Diane Pecorari, Good and Original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic second-language writing (Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 2003, p. 317)

6 “There is a certain point, however, when writers need to become aware of the concept of plagiarism.... Reid (1993) notes that it is our responsibility to give students ‘frequent, carefully monitored opportunities to practice the skills of paraphrase, summary, quotation and citation’ so that they can develop an awareness of other authors and texts.” 4 4 Barbara Law and Mary Eckes, The More-Than-Just-Surviving Handbook : ESL for Every Classroom Teacher (Winnipeg: Portage & Main Press, 2000, p. 162)

7 What our programs say about reinvestment... Elementary Cycle One Elementary Cycle Two and Cycle Three Secondary Cycle One

8 Elementary Secondary Cycle One Competency 1 Cycles Two and Three Competency 2 Cycle One Competency 2 Demonstration of understanding of texts Demonstration of understanding of key elements and overall meaning Evidence of comprehension of texts Use of words and expressions from texts Carrying out tasksUse of knowledge from texts appropriate to the task Use of learning strategiesUse of strategiesUse of communication and learning strategies E V A L U A T I O N C R I T E R I A Use of resources

9 Elementary Secondary Cycle One Competency 1 Cycle Two Competency 2 Cycle Three Competency 2 Cycle One Competency 2 Make use of resources provided. PFEQ, p. 11 Use texts and available resources as sources of ideas and information PFEQ, p. 103 Select, organize and summarize information, develop ideas and expand their range of words and expressions using texts and available resources PFEQ, p. 103 Select, organize and adapt the information, all the while cooperating with their peers and using resources required by the task Use knowledge from texts such as the overall meaning, specific details and key elements PFEQ, pp. 182, 183 Create personalized versions of texts Deliver a personalized product Select, organize and adapt the information R E I N V E S T M E N T A S D E F I N E D I N P R O G R A M S

10 Helping students reinvest... COPYINGPATCHWRITING PERSONALIZING/ ADAPTING

11 Helping students reinvest... COPYINGPATCHWRITING PERSONALIZING/ ADAPTING

12 “Beginners often copy straight from the text. This is NOT plagiarism. It is... useful... for thinking through what it is they want to say. As students get older and more proficient they can begin thinking about paraphrasing, consolidating information, and putting thoughts into their own words. 5 5 Barbara Law and Mary Eckes, The More-Than-Just-Surviving Handbook : ESL for Every Classroom Teacher (Winnipeg: Portage & Main Press, 2000, p. 161)

13 Why do ESL students copy word for word? They don’t understand the reinvestment task and what is expected. They don’t understand the texts (ideas, language). They don’t have the language to put the information/ideas into their own words; they don’t know how to do this. They think it’s okay to copy. They don’t want to make errors; they want to be accurate. They want to impress (teacher, parents); they want to do well. They have run out of time. Adapted from:

14 Support for Learning Teach students how to use strategies in order to help them construct meaning before reinvesting: Activating/using prior knowledge Inferring Skimming Predicting Scanning Accepting not being able to understand everything listened to or read Resourcing Note-taking

15 Support for Learning Teach students the response process in Secondary Cycle One in order to help them construct meaning before reinvesting. PFEQ, p. 600 At the Elementary level, there is “pre-response.” Students “... show their understanding of the overall meaning, compare reality presented in texts with their own reality, and express their appreciation of texts.” PFEQ, p. 103

16 Support for Learning Before reinvesting, students must know what to reinvest and how to personalize/adapt: Make expectations clear. Model how to select, organize, summarize and personalize/adapt useful information/ideas. Show students good examples of reinvesting understanding in written products.

17 “Advanced beginner and intermediate ESL language learners can be especially vulnerable to copying information when attempting to work on [information-based texts]... Students at this level are proud to assemble the information they have found and may simply not have the ability to reformulate it...” 6 6 Barbara Law and Mary Eckes, The More-Than-Just-Surviving Handbook : ESL for Every Classroom Teacher (Winnipeg: Portage & Main Press, 2000, p. 162)

18 Copying Original Sentence: The Paralympics are the most important international competition for athletes with a disability. Copied Sentence: The Paralympics are the most important international competition for athletes with a disability.

19 Helping students reinvest... COPYINGPATCHWRITING PERSONALIZING/ ADAPTING

20 Patchwriting: copying from a text, deleting some words, changing some grammatical structures or substituting words with synonyms 7 “... useful... for ESL students as they move from second-language writing skills to mature writing.” 8 7Howard, 1993, cited in McDonnell, 2003, cited in Yousef, 2009, 8Hu, 2001, cited in McDonnell, 2003, cited in Yousef, 2009,

21 Patchwriting: copying from a text, deleting some words, changing some grammatical structures or substituting words with synonyms 9 “Patchwriting should be recognized... and efforts to address it should start with the understanding that most students will use sources inappropriately before they learn how to use them appropriately and focus on supporting novice writers and ensuring that they emerge from... patchwriting.” 10 9 Howard, 1993, cited in McDonnell, 2003, cited in Yousef, 2009, 10 Diane Pecorari, Good and Original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic second-language writing (Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 2003, p. 342)

22 Patchwriting Original Sentence: The Paralympics are the most important international competition for athletes with a disability. Patchwritten Sentence: The most important international contest for athletes with a disability is the Paralympics.

23 Helping students reinvest... COPYINGPATCHWRITING PERSONALIZING/ ADAPTING

24 Personalizing/adapting in C2 is... adapting information that you use from an original text (read, listened to or viewed) in order to make it your own by: restating a text using your own words while preserving the essential meaning (paraphrasing)

25 Personalizing/Adapting Original Sentence: The Paralympics are the most important international competition for athletes with a disability. Personalized/Adapted Sentence: The biggest worldwide event for disabled athletes is called the Paralympic Games.

26 Personalizing/adapting in C2 is also... adding your own words/ideas, relevant to the task or topic, to this information combining this information with other information in the text and with information from other texts …all the while, showing a true understanding of the texts and the information you have used.

27 Personalizing/Adapting Original Sentence: The Paralympics are the most important international competition for athletes with a disability. Highly Personalized/Adapted Sentence: Every two years, elite disabled athletes from around the world compete in many winter or summer sports at the biggest event of its kind: the Paralympic Games.

28 Original Sentence The Paralympics are the most important international competition for athletes with a disability. Copied Sentence The Paralympics are the most important international competition for athletes with a disability. Patchwritten Sentence The most important international contest for athletes with a disability is the Paralympics. Personalized/Adapted Sentence The biggest worldwide event for disabled athletes is called the Paralympic Games. Highly Personalized/Adapted Sentence Every two years, elite disabled athletes from around the world compete in many winter or summer sports at the biggest event of its kind: the Paralympic Games.

29 The less personalized your students’ texts are, the more their texts look/sound the same. LESSMORE PersonalizedP e r s o n a l i z e d personalizedPersonalized Personalised PERSONALIZED

30 Theory’s Great... Now What?! You have two student packages in your folder. The first one is for Secondary Cycle One and contains a rubric (blue), the three texts students read to learn more about their Paralympic athlete (numbered 1,2,3) and a sample brochure. The titles of the panels of the brochure are highlighted in different colours. Each colour corresponds with the parts of the texts the student read and reinvested. The three texts are: 1) Paralympic Games, 2) Swimming, and 3) Athlete’s Biography.

31 Evaluation Criterion ABCDE Use of knowledge from texts appropriate to the task There are many clear links* to the texts and the information used is rich, relevant and accurate. There are many clear links* to the texts and the information used is relevant and accurate. There are many clear links* to the texts and most of the information used is relevant and/or accurate. There are few clear links* to the texts. AND/OR Most of the information used is irrelevant (e.g. does not make sense, is incomplete) and/or inaccurate. None of the information used from the texts is relevant or accurate. The information in the brochure is highly adapted.** The information in the brochure is adapted.** Some information in the brochure is adapted; some is copied from the texts. Very little of the information in the brochure is adapted; most of the information is copied from the texts. All of the information is copied from the texts. SECONDARY ― CYCLE ONE ― COMPETENCY 2 RUBRIC

32 Look at the brochure and decide which parts have been... copied patchwritten adapted highly adapted... then evaluate the brochure using the provided rubric (blue copy).

33 Evaluation Criteria My teacher observes whether... ABCDE Carrying out reinvestment task I correctly use information and language from the texts I read. My article contains lots of information and language from a variety of the texts I read. My article contains an adequate amount of information and language from the texts I read. My article contains some information and language from the texts I read. My article contains very little information and language from the texts I read. My article does not contain information from the texts I read. OR My article is copied from the texts I read. My eco footprint article is personalized. My article is very personalized.* My article is personalized.* Some parts of my article are personalized; some parts are copied. Very little of my article is personalized; I have mostly copied from the texts I read. ELEMENTARY ― CYCLE THREE ― COMPETENCY 2 RUBRIC

34 For the eco footprint article (beige): The beige sheet has the student’s original text on one side, and the typed version and rubric on the other. Read the typed version. Provided prompts that students used in their article are in bold. yellow highlighted partsUnderlined parts on the beige sheet correspond to the yellow highlighted parts in the texts that the student read (Owl texts AND the Green Trivia Game page). Evaluate for (Row 1): the amount of correct information that is reinvested; (Row 2) the degree of personalization.

35 Next Steps How can teachers support their students’ learning to help them become better reinvestors ? What do teachers need to consider when evaluating reinvestment in students’ texts? What are your next steps for Competency 2?

36 Food for thought “Your work is both good and original. Unfortunately, the parts which are good are not original, and the parts which are original are not good.” Misattributed to Samuel Johnson ( ) English author, critic & lexicographer


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