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By Michelle Onibokun AFRI--1620: Black NOLA Research Seminar.

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Presentation on theme: "By Michelle Onibokun AFRI--1620: Black NOLA Research Seminar."— Presentation transcript:

1 by Michelle Onibokun AFRI--1620: Black NOLA Research Seminar

2 Setting the Scene Homère Plessy’s Train Ticket June 7, 1892

3 Relatively amiable Entwined social lives Integrated transportation Prevalence of black voters Race Relations prior to 1890

4 Legislative Code 111 Separate Car Act American Citizens’ Equal Rights Association “Citizenship is National, and has no color.” Changing Tides Governor Francis Nicholls

5 The Daily Crusader (1890) Comité des Citoyens (September 1, 1891) Activism Rodolphe Desdunes Arthur Estèves

6 The Daily Crusader (1890) Comité des Citoyens (September 1, 1891) Activism Daniel Desdunes

7 November 18, 1892 “Equal but separate” “Judges have nothing to do with policy of particular acts passed by the legislature” Plessy Meets Ferguson

8 “[The Amendment] could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory to either.” Justice Brown, majority opinion Plessy decision Supreme Ruling (May 18, 1896) Albion TourgéeJustice Brown

9 “…inconsistent not only with that equality of rights which pertains to citizenship, National and State, but with the personal liberty enjoyed by everyone within the United States.” The Lone Dissenter Justice Harlan, dissenting opinion

10 The formalization of a racial caste system

11 “[We are dedicated to purging] the mass of corrupt and illiterate voters who have during the last quarter of a century degraded our politics.” (Ernest Kruttschnitt, leading figure at Constitutional Convention) “[This Constitution is] utterly and irrevocably antagonistic to the immutable laws of justice and equity.” (Populist B.W. Bailey, one of only two men at the convention to vote against the changes to the Constitution) Democratic Convention and the Assault on Voting Rights (February 1898)

12 Re-segregation of Schools in 1877 Conditions progressively worsen for Black schools from Teaching staff doubled, teachers’ salaries were doubled, and curriculum reorganized at white schools Any publicly-funded schools past the fifth grade for Blacks were closed The Schools Ernest KruttschnittWarren Easton

13 Concerned with: Overcrowding Poor facilities The lack of high schools and night schools Community Activism Reverend Henderson Dunn Dr. Joseph Hardin

14 At least six African Americans lynched Many more assaulted by white mobs The Lafon School torched Race Riots (1900) The Lafon School

15 Re-segregation of streetcars (1902) that were previously integrated (1867) Minimally Successful Boycott Pearson v. State (1903) Transportation and the Wilson Bill

16 Interracial marriage (Gauthreaux Law – 1896) Water fountains (1908) City Ordinance Number 4118 (Moral Law ) The Expansion of Jim Crow

17 “We, as freemen, still believe that we were right and our cause is sacred.” Citizen’s Committee (1896) Disbanded but not Defeated

18 wordpress.com


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