Presentation on theme: "Civil Rights Movement Section 1"— Presentation transcript:
1Civil Rights Movement Section 1 Chapter 26Civil Rights MovementSection 1
2Beginnings of The Civil Rights Movement In 1896, the Supreme Court ruling Plessy v. Ferguson strengthened segregation.The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was organized to fight discrimination.
3The 1940sAfter serving in the armed services in World War II, minorities wanted justice between the races at home.When Branch Rickey hired Jackie Robinson, he helped to integrate Major League Baseball.President Harry Truman ordered desegregation of the armed forces.
4The 1950s Segregation in the Schools Thurgood Marshall argued for school desegregation in the Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka.In this case, the Court ruled to end school segregation.In 1957, nine African American students tried to enter Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
5The 1950’s Cont.Govenor Orval Faubus called in the state’s National Guard to keep them out.President Eisenhower called in federal troops to protect the students.
6Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks was arrested when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger.The Women’s Political Council organized a boycott of buses on Parks’ trial day.Martin Luther King Jr. urged African Americans to continue the boycott.Some white leaders were outraged by the boycott. Some even bombed King’s home.
7Montgomery Bus Boycott cont. After the boycott went on for more than a year, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.
8Civil Rights Movement Section 2 Chapter 26Civil Rights MovementSection 2
9The Warren CourtChief Justice Earl Warren believed the Constitution should be interpreted flexibly.In Miranda vs. Arizona, the Court ruling expanded the rights of people accused of crimes.In Tinker vs. Des Moines School District, the Court expanded the concept of freedom of speech.
10Kennedy’s Administration President Kennedy’s Domestic Goals:End povertyFight diseaseEnsure justice for allStart space programPrograms Congress Agreed to:Some anti-poverty programsSpace programs
11Johnson’s Administration ProgramGreat SocietyProgram Goal: Expand Opportunity and provide decent standard of living for all Americans
12Johnson’s Administration ProgramHead StartProgram Goal: Provide preschools for needy childrenMedicareProgram Goal: to assist the elderly in paying medical bills
13Johnson’s Administration ProgramMedicaidProgram Goal: To assist the needy not covered by Medicare in paying medical billsFood StampsProgram Goal: To assist the needy in paying for groceries.
14Johnson’s Administration ProgramWelfareProgram Goal: To provide cash payments to the poorH.U.D.Program Goal: to oversee building of housing for low and middle income people.
15Timeline of the Civil Rights Movement Section 3 Chapter 26Timeline of the Civil Rights MovementSection 3
161957Martin Luther King Jr. joins with other African American church leaders to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
171960Four African American college students refuse to leave a lunch counter, starting a type of protest known as a sit-in.
181961Freedom Rides take place to desgregate public transportation across state lines.
191962James Meredith tries to attend the University of Mississippi and riots break out
201963Massive demonstrations take place in Birmingham, Alabama, and police respond with violence.Nearly 250,000 people come together to support civil rights legislation in the famous March on Washington.
211964President Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. This act outlaws segregation, advances voting opportunities, bans job discrimination and speed up school desegregation.
221965In King’s march for voting rights, people walk from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. State troopers set upon marchers with tear gas, clubs, and whips.Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which removes barriers to voting and allows federal officers to register African Americans.Malcolm X, once a believer in black separatism, is killed.
231965Riots occur in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles in response to police brutality.
241967Thurgood Marshall becomes the first African American Supreme Court Justice.
251968 Martin Luther King Jr. is killed. Riots occur throughout the country.
261970sAffirmative action, a program through which groups who were previously discriminated against get preferential treatment, is established. Critics argue that some groups have unfair advantages for jobs and education.
28The Women’s Rights Movement Betty Friedmen’s The Feminine Mystique criticized women’s limited role in society.NOW’s goals were laws that would give women greater equality, that medical schools and law practices train and hire more women, day-care facilities for mother who worked outside the home, passage of ERA.
29The Women’s Rights Movement Arguments for the ERA: to forbid any form of sex discriminationArguments against the ERA: would undermine traditional values, could force women into combat, could lessen women’s right to alimony, laws already gave women equality
30The Women’s Rights Movement The 1963 Equal Pay Act ensured that men and women doing the same work receive the same payThe Civil Rights Act of 1965 banned discrimination based on sex.In the 1960s and 1970s, the number of women working outside the home and attending college increased.
31Mexican AmericansIn the Southwest, many Mexican Americans children went to Mexican schools which were not as good as the all-white schools.Mexican American World War II veterans formed the American GI Forum to challenge discrimination.In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court ruled that it was illegal to exclude Mexican Americans from juries.
32Mexican AmericansCesar Chavez was one of the founders of the United Farm Workers. He organized a nationwide boycott of California grapes. The boycott led to grape growers signing a contract with the UFW.The Voting Rights Act of 1975 was important because it ensured bilingual elections.Legislation for bilingual education was passed.
33Native AmericansThe National Congress of American Indians had some success in regaining land, water, and minerals rights for Native Americans.The American Indian Movement was more militant. Armed members went to Wounded Knee. Its goal was to draw attention to past injustice to Native Americans.
34Older AmericansMandatory retirement means forcing people to retire once they reach a certain age.The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) championed health insurance for retired Americans.Maggie Kuhn formed the Gray Panthers to fight age discrimination.
35Americans with Disabilities Organizations for the disabled championed laws that would improve access to public buildings.The Education for the Handicapped Act of 1975 guaranteed all children with disabilities would receive a free education.The Americans with Disabilities Act made it illegal to discriminate in hiring based on physical or mental disability.