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Civil Rights Movement Section 1

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1 Civil Rights Movement Section 1
Chapter 26 Civil Rights Movement Section 1

2 Beginnings of The Civil Rights Movement
In 1896, the Supreme Court ruling Plessy v. Ferguson strengthened segregation. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was organized to fight discrimination.

3 The 1940s After serving in the armed services in World War II, minorities wanted justice between the races at home. When Branch Rickey hired Jackie Robinson, he helped to integrate Major League Baseball. President Harry Truman ordered desegregation of the armed forces.

4 The 1950s Segregation in the Schools
Thurgood Marshall argued for school desegregation in the Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka. In this case, the Court ruled to end school segregation. In 1957, nine African American students tried to enter Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.

5 The 1950’s Cont. Govenor Orval Faubus called in the state’s National Guard to keep them out. President Eisenhower called in federal troops to protect the students.

6 Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks was arrested when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. The Women’s Political Council organized a boycott of buses on Parks’ trial day. Martin Luther King Jr. urged African Americans to continue the boycott. Some white leaders were outraged by the boycott. Some even bombed King’s home.

7 Montgomery Bus Boycott cont.
After the boycott went on for more than a year, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.

8 Civil Rights Movement Section 2
Chapter 26 Civil Rights Movement Section 2

9 The Warren Court Chief Justice Earl Warren believed the Constitution should be interpreted flexibly. In Miranda vs. Arizona, the Court ruling expanded the rights of people accused of crimes. In Tinker vs. Des Moines School District, the Court expanded the concept of freedom of speech.

10 Kennedy’s Administration
President Kennedy’s Domestic Goals: End poverty Fight disease Ensure justice for all Start space program Programs Congress Agreed to: Some anti-poverty programs Space programs

11 Johnson’s Administration
Program Great Society Program Goal: Expand Opportunity and provide decent standard of living for all Americans

12 Johnson’s Administration
Program Head Start Program Goal: Provide preschools for needy children Medicare Program Goal: to assist the elderly in paying medical bills

13 Johnson’s Administration
Program Medicaid Program Goal: To assist the needy not covered by Medicare in paying medical bills Food Stamps Program Goal: To assist the needy in paying for groceries.

14 Johnson’s Administration
Program Welfare Program Goal: To provide cash payments to the poor H.U.D. Program Goal: to oversee building of housing for low and middle income people.

15 Timeline of the Civil Rights Movement Section 3
Chapter 26 Timeline of the Civil Rights Movement Section 3

16 1957 Martin Luther King Jr. joins with other African American church leaders to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

17 1960 Four African American college students refuse to leave a lunch counter, starting a type of protest known as a sit-in.

18 1961 Freedom Rides take place to desgregate public transportation across state lines.

19 1962 James Meredith tries to attend the University of Mississippi and riots break out

20 1963 Massive demonstrations take place in Birmingham, Alabama, and police respond with violence. Nearly 250,000 people come together to support civil rights legislation in the famous March on Washington.

21 1964 President Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. This act outlaws segregation, advances voting opportunities, bans job discrimination and speed up school desegregation.

22 1965 In King’s march for voting rights, people walk from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. State troopers set upon marchers with tear gas, clubs, and whips. Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which removes barriers to voting and allows federal officers to register African Americans. Malcolm X, once a believer in black separatism, is killed.

23 1965 Riots occur in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles in response to police brutality.

24 1967 Thurgood Marshall becomes the first African American Supreme Court Justice.

25 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. is killed.
Riots occur throughout the country.

26 1970s Affirmative action, a program through which groups who were previously discriminated against get preferential treatment, is established. Critics argue that some groups have unfair advantages for jobs and education.

27 Reform Movements Section 4
Chapter 26 Reform Movements Section 4

28 The Women’s Rights Movement
Betty Friedmen’s The Feminine Mystique criticized women’s limited role in society. NOW’s goals were laws that would give women greater equality, that medical schools and law practices train and hire more women, day-care facilities for mother who worked outside the home, passage of ERA.

29 The Women’s Rights Movement
Arguments for the ERA: to forbid any form of sex discrimination Arguments against the ERA: would undermine traditional values, could force women into combat, could lessen women’s right to alimony, laws already gave women equality

30 The Women’s Rights Movement
The 1963 Equal Pay Act ensured that men and women doing the same work receive the same pay The Civil Rights Act of 1965 banned discrimination based on sex. In the 1960s and 1970s, the number of women working outside the home and attending college increased.

31 Mexican Americans In the Southwest, many Mexican Americans children went to Mexican schools which were not as good as the all-white schools. Mexican American World War II veterans formed the American GI Forum to challenge discrimination. In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court ruled that it was illegal to exclude Mexican Americans from juries.

32 Mexican Americans Cesar Chavez was one of the founders of the United Farm Workers. He organized a nationwide boycott of California grapes. The boycott led to grape growers signing a contract with the UFW. The Voting Rights Act of 1975 was important because it ensured bilingual elections. Legislation for bilingual education was passed.

33 Native Americans The National Congress of American Indians had some success in regaining land, water, and minerals rights for Native Americans. The American Indian Movement was more militant. Armed members went to Wounded Knee. Its goal was to draw attention to past injustice to Native Americans.

34 Older Americans Mandatory retirement means forcing people to retire once they reach a certain age. The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) championed health insurance for retired Americans. Maggie Kuhn formed the Gray Panthers to fight age discrimination.

35 Americans with Disabilities
Organizations for the disabled championed laws that would improve access to public buildings. The Education for the Handicapped Act of 1975 guaranteed all children with disabilities would receive a free education. The Americans with Disabilities Act made it illegal to discriminate in hiring based on physical or mental disability.

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