Presentation on theme: "The Election of 1960 The Democratic candidate was John Kennedy."— Presentation transcript:
1The Election of 1960 The Democratic candidate was John Kennedy. The Republican Candidate was Richard NixonThe key to this election was looking good on televisionKennedy had the upper hand being good looking and a good speaker.Kennedy being the more appealing president won by a small margin.
2Bay of Pigs InvasionThe CIA trained troops to land of the Beach of Cuba and try to overthrow Castro and start an uproar.On the night of April 17, 1961 about 1,400 Cuban exciles landed on the beach.The plan failed miserably when 2,000 Cuban troops were waiting for them on the beach.The troops were captured and taken prisoner and a few were killed.This upset Castro and pushed him closer to the breaking point of using missiles against the United States.
3Cuban Missile CrisisNikita Khrushchev had promised to protect Cuba so he supplied them with missiles.An American U-2 plane flying over Cuba took a picture of the missile site which alarmed Kennedy.Kennedy addressed Khrushchev saying that if an missiles in Cuba were to be used to attack the United States that would lead to all out war against the Soviets.Khrushchev said that if the United States were to not invade Cuba that they would remove the missiles.Kennedy agreed and the Crisis was ended.
4Berlin WallMany people were fleeing to West Germany of the account that they were free there and that East Germany was Communist.Khrushchev knew he had to do something quick so he had a wall built so that no one could get out of East Germany.The Wall was heavily guarded at all times and they would fire at anyone trying to escape.The wall became an Ugly symbol of Communist opression.
5Key TermsJohn F. Kennedy- He was the 35th president of the United States. He won the election of 1960 during a time of war and during the civil rights movement. He was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Texas.Flexible response- a policy, developed during the Kennedy administration, that involved preparing for a variety of military response to international crises rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons.Fidel Castro- He became the communist leader of Cuba after Batista. He was allied with the Soviets and threatened to nuke us both if we kept treating Cuba poorly. He was not a very stable leader and he was a cruel, tyrant dictator.Berlin Wall- A concrete wall that separated East Berlin and West Berlin from 1961 to 1989, built by the Communist East German government to prevent its citizens from fleeing to the West.Hot line- a communication link established in 1963 to allow the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union to contact each other in times of crisis.Limited Test Ban Treaty- the 1963 treaty in which the United States and the Soviet Union agreed not to conduct nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere.
6The Camelot YearsDuring Kennedy’s term, he gave special recognition to art and cultureJFK and his family fascinate the publicJFK could read 1600 words per minute, and this inspired many people to take speed-reading coursesKennedy and his board of advisers reminded many people of a modern day CamelotKennedy surrounded himself with young intellectuals:National security adviser McGeorge BundySecretary of defense Robert McNamaraSecretary of state Dean Rusk
7The Promise of Progress Kennedy tried to realize his broad vision of progress through the New FrontierNew Frontier- Wide reaching legislative agenda that sought to progress the U.S. through social and economic reformKennedy had trouble turning the New Frontier into a reality because he lacked a popular mandateKennedy won presidency by a small margin--no clear indication that the voters approved of his plansKennedy persuades Congress to enact measures to stimulate the economy, provide international aid, and fund a large space program
8Stimulating the Economy at Home By the late 1950’s the growth of the Economy had slowedBy the 1960’s, the U.S. was in a recessionKennedy proposes increased spending to CongressDepartment of defense receives a 20% increase in fundingCongress also approves a domestic packageRaised minimum wage to $1.25 an hourExtended unemployment insuranceProvided assistance to cities with high unemployment
9Addressing Poverty Abroad Kennedy fulfills campaign promise by creating Peace Corps1968- More than 35,000 volunteers have served in Peace CorpsAlliance for Progress created in 1961Offered economic and technical assistance to help Latin American countries improve their living standards
10Race to the MoonApril 12, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes first human in spaceFebruary 20, U.S. astronaut John Glenn orbits earth three timesJuly 20, Neil Armstrong becomes first man to set foot on the moon
11Tragedy in DallasNovember 22, Kennedy assassinated in Dallas TexasLee Harvey Oswald charged with the murderEarl Warren begins an extensive investigation into the details of JFK’s assassination by forming the Warren CommissionThe Warren Commission concludes that Lee Harvey Oswald murdered President John F. Kennedy with a rifle, firing from the Texas schoolbook depository
12VocabularyEconomic Opportunity Act: A law, enacted in 1964, that provides funds for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small business loans, and job training.Great Society: President Lyndon B. Johnson’s program to reduce poverty and racial injustice an to promote a better quality of life in the United States.Medicare: provides hospital insurance and low cost medical insurance for almost every American age 65 or older.Medicaid: Extended health insurance to welfare recipients.Immigration Act of 1965: replaced the national origins system with an annual quota of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere.Warren Court: banned prayer in public schools and declared state-required loyalty oaths unconstitutional.Reapportionment: or the way in which states redraw election districts based on changing number of people in them.Miranda Rights: include (1) that suspects have a right to remain silent (2) that anything they say can be used against them and (3) that they have a right to a lawyer before and during interrogation.
13Lyndon B. Johnson Grew up in Blanco County Texas. Entered politics in By earning a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives.Would go on to earn a seat in the U.S. senate in 1948.Helped pass the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which opened an eye to John F Kennedy, which led to Johnson being asked by JFK to run with him.Johnson wanted to attack poverty and create less of it in the United States. He would help pass the Economic Opportunity Act which would greatly help many people.He then would crush Barry Goldwater in the election of 1964.The Great Society that Johnson had wanted passed 24 major programs from the year , creating big milestones for the U.S.
14Great Society Programs Tax Reduction ActEconomic Opportunity ActMedical Care ActAppalachian Regional Development ActOmnibus Housing ActDepartment of Housing and Urban DevelopmentDemonstration Cities and Metropolitan Area Redevelopment ActElementary and Secondary Education ActHigher Education ActNational Foundation on the Arts and the HumanitiesCorporation for Public BroadcastingCivil Rights ActTwenty-fourth AmendmentVoting Rights ActImmigration ActWilderness Preservation ActWater Quality ActClean Air Act AmendmentAir Quality ActTruth in Packaging ActNational Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety ActHighway Safety ActDepartment of Transportation
15Great Society and Warren Court Impact The Great Society and the Warren Court greatly changed the United States. It is not really something that people necessarily was a huge success. Many thought that the “Great Society succeeded in prompting far-reaching social change.” People liked the programs made by the government because it helped many people. Some people were not as satisfied with the Great Society. As quoted in the book, “Failures of the Great Society prove that government-sponsored programs do not work.” People thought that the Great Society created a Big Government.Some good things came out of this. The poor fell from 25% of the population to around 11% from the year 1962 to Some of the most important things were the Civil Rights wins by African Americans changing the United States for the better. There were also some tax cuts. However the funding for the Great Society would take a toll on the U.S. Putting the United States into a budget deficit.Warren Court
16Plessy V .Ferguson (1896)This case ruled separate but equal accommodation's for African Americans did not violate the fourteenth amendment.After this law was passed the Jim Crow Laws were able to be passed-this sparked tension in the African American community
17NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Created in 1909 and led by Thurgood Marshall this group won over 30 Supreme Court cases.The NAACP won a large amount of small segregation related cases which was an attempt to eventually fix a much bigger problem among African-Americans, equality.
18Brown v. Board of Education One of Thurgood Marshall’s many milestones, this was a court case based on segregated education in four very racist states- Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware.In this case the Supreme court segregation as unconstitutional, introducing integrated schooling.
19Resistance to school integration After the Brown v. Board of Education case allowed for integrated school systems many southern states still did not allow it.In September 1957 Orval Faubus(Gov. Of Arkansas) ordered the National guard to turn away the nine African-Americans attending Little Rock High school. Eisenhower heard of this and ordered one thousand paratroopers into Little Rock assuring the black students could attend school.-This brought a huge amount of media attention to the unfair treatment of blacks in southern schools.
20The Montgomery Bus Boycott Sparked by Rosa Park’s arrest and led by Jo Ann Robinson and E.D Nixon, African Americans refused to ride any buses in Montgomery for 381 days.This proved to the world that African Americans could organize a successful protest.
21SCLC(Southern Christian Leadership Conference) This was one of the many civil rights groups with a final goal of equality.The SCLC hoped to win the support of ordinary Africa Americans of all ages.The group was led by Martin Luther King Junior.
22SNCC( Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) The SNCC was another civil rights group formed of students mostly famous for their sit-ins(sitting at segregated tables at restaurants and not leaving untill their food is served).This group brought a huge amount of media attention to the true horrific faces of racism
23Riding for Freedom Freedom Riders Civil rights activists who took a stand against segregation by riding buses through the segregated South (Alabama, Mississippi, etc.)Violence and ProtestBull Connor and the Birmingham police refused desegregation in AlabamaAfrican Americans were beaten and firebombs were thrown into busesReliefFederal Marshals arrived toescort freedom riders.Segregation banned in travel facilities,restrooms, and lunch counters.Public opinion changed in favor of thecivil rights movement
24Standing Firm Integrating Schools Civil rights activists turned their attention to desegregation in schools and universities.James Meredith and Ole MissMartin Luther King steps upMLK flies to Birmingham to help efforts to desegregate the cityArrested by Bull ConnorKennedy takes a standDesegregation of Ole MissDemands congress pass a civil rights billMedgar EversNAACP field secretary (Shot by Bryon de la Beckwith)
25Marching to Washington More than 250,000 people marched to WashingtonGoal was to the get the civil rights bill passedMLK’s “I Have a Dream” speechProvokes civil rights moralViolence breaks outChurches burned downJFK is assassinatedCivil Rights Bill of 1964 is passed
26Voting Rights Freedom Summer civil rights project aimed at gaining voting rights for African Americans.Robert Mosesmember of SNCC who led the civil rights movement in Mississippi for voting rights.Violent OppositionThree civil rights workers were murdered during the freedom summerMississippi Freedom Democratic PartyFannie Lou Hamer- spoke at MFDP convention andchanged public opinion to sympathy for African Americans.Selma CampaignSNCC and SCLC start civil rights campaign inSelma, Alabama.Goal was to gain voting rights for blacks.More violence breaks outVoting Rights Act of eliminates the literacy teststhat disqualified so many blacks from voting.