Presentation on theme: "The Election of 1960 The Democratic candidate was John Kennedy. The Republican Candidate was Richard Nixon – The key to this election was looking good."— Presentation transcript:
The Election of 1960 The Democratic candidate was John Kennedy. The Republican Candidate was Richard Nixon – The key to this election was looking good on television – Kennedy had the upper hand being good looking and a good speaker. Kennedy being the more appealing president won by a small margin.
Bay of Pigs Invasion The CIA trained troops to land of the Beach of Cuba and try to overthrow Castro and start an uproar. On the night of April 17, 1961 about 1,400 Cuban exciles landed on the beach. The plan failed miserably when 2,000 Cuban troops were waiting for them on the beach. The troops were captured and taken prisoner and a few were killed. This upset Castro and pushed him closer to the breaking point of using missiles against the United States.
Cuban Missile Crisis Nikita Khrushchev had promised to protect Cuba so he supplied them with missiles. An American U-2 plane flying over Cuba took a picture of the missile site which alarmed Kennedy. Kennedy addressed Khrushchev saying that if an missiles in Cuba were to be used to attack the United States that would lead to all out war against the Soviets. Khrushchev said that if the United States were to not invade Cuba that they would remove the missiles. Kennedy agreed and the Crisis was ended.
Berlin Wall Many people were fleeing to West Germany of the account that they were free there and that East Germany was Communist. Khrushchev knew he had to do something quick so he had a wall built so that no one could get out of East Germany. The Wall was heavily guarded at all times and they would fire at anyone trying to escape. The wall became an Ugly symbol of Communist opression.
Key Terms John F. Kennedy- He was the 35 th president of the United States. He won the election of 1960 during a time of war and during the civil rights movement. He was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Texas. Flexible response- a policy, developed during the Kennedy administration, that involved preparing for a variety of military response to international crises rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons. Fidel Castro- He became the communist leader of Cuba after Batista. He was allied with the Soviets and threatened to nuke us both if we kept treating Cuba poorly. He was not a very stable leader and he was a cruel, tyrant dictator. Berlin Wall- A concrete wall that separated East Berlin and West Berlin from 1961 to 1989, built by the Communist East German government to prevent its citizens from fleeing to the West. Hot line- a communication link established in 1963 to allow the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union to contact each other in times of crisis. Limited Test Ban Treaty- the 1963 treaty in which the United States and the Soviet Union agreed not to conduct nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere.
The Camelot Years During Kennedy’s term, he gave special recognition to art and culture JFK and his family fascinate the public JFK could read 1600 words per minute, and this inspired many people to take speed- reading courses Kennedy and his board of advisers reminded many people of a modern day Camelot Kennedy surrounded himself with young intellectuals: National security adviser McGeorge Bundy Secretary of defense Robert McNamara Secretary of state Dean Rusk
The Promise of Progress Kennedy tried to realize his broad vision of progress through the New Frontier New Frontier- Wide reaching legislative agenda that sought to progress the U.S. through social and economic reform Kennedy had trouble turning the New Frontier into a reality because he lacked a popular mandate Kennedy won presidency by a small margin-- no clear indication that the voters approved of his plans Kennedy persuades Congress to enact measures to stimulate the economy, provide international aid, and fund a large space program
Stimulating the Economy at Home By the late 1950’s the growth of the Economy had slowed By the 1960’s, the U.S. was in a recession Kennedy proposes increased spending to Congress Department of defense receives a 20% increase in funding Congress also approves a domestic package Raised minimum wage to $1.25 an hour Extended unemployment insurance Provided assistance to cities with high unemployment
Addressing Poverty Abroad Kennedy fulfills campaign promise by creating Peace Corps 1968- More than 35,000 volunteers have served in Peace Corps Alliance for Progress created in 1961 Offered economic and technical assistance to help Latin American countries improve their living standards
Race to the Moon April 12, 1961- Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes first human in space February 20, 1962- U.S. astronaut John Glenn orbits earth three times July 20, 1969- Neil Armstrong becomes first man to set foot on the moon
Tragedy in Dallas November 22, 1963- Kennedy assassinated in Dallas Texas Lee Harvey Oswald charged with the murder Earl Warren begins an extensive investigation into the details of JFK’s assassination by forming the Warren Commission The Warren Commission concludes that Lee Harvey Oswald murdered President John F. Kennedy with a rifle, firing from the Texas schoolbook depository
Vocabulary Economic Opportunity Act: A law, enacted in 1964, that provides funds for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small business loans, and job training. Great Society: President Lyndon B. Johnson’s program to reduce poverty and racial injustice an to promote a better quality of life in the United States. Medicare: provides hospital insurance and low cost medical insurance for almost every American age 65 or older. Medicaid: Extended health insurance to welfare recipients. Immigration Act of 1965: replaced the national origins system with an annual quota of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere. Warren Court: banned prayer in public schools and declared state-required loyalty oaths unconstitutional. Reapportionment: or the way in which states redraw election districts based on changing number of people in them. Miranda Rights: include (1) that suspects have a right to remain silent (2) that anything they say can be used against them and (3) that they have a right to a lawyer before and during interrogation.
Lyndon B. Johnson Grew up in Blanco County Texas. Entered politics in 1937. By earning a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. Would go on to earn a seat in the U.S. senate in 1948. Helped pass the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which opened an eye to John F Kennedy, which led to Johnson being asked by JFK to run with him. Johnson wanted to attack poverty and create less of it in the United States. He would help pass the Economic Opportunity Act which would greatly help many people. He then would crush Barry Goldwater in the election of 1964. The Great Society that Johnson had wanted passed 24 major programs from the year 1964-1967, creating big milestones for the U.S.
Great Society Programs Tax Reduction Act Economic Opportunity Act Medical Care Act Appalachian Regional Development Act Omnibus Housing Act Department of Housing and Urban Development Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Area Redevelopment Act Elementary and Secondary Education Act Higher Education Act National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Corporation for Public Broadcasting Civil Rights Act Twenty-fourth Amendment Voting Rights Act Immigration Act Wilderness Preservation Act Water Quality Act Clean Air Act Amendment Air Quality Act Truth in Packaging Act National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act Highway Safety Act Department of Transportation
Great Society and Warren Court Impact The Great Society and the Warren Court greatly changed the United States. It is not really something that people necessarily was a huge success. Many thought that the “Great Society succeeded in prompting far-reaching social change.” People liked the programs made by the government because it helped many people. Some people were not as satisfied with the Great Society. As quoted in the book, “Failures of the Great Society prove that government-sponsored programs do not work.” People thought that the Great Society created a Big Government. Some good things came out of this. The poor fell from 25% of the population to around 11% from the year 1962 to 1973. Some of the most important things were the Civil Rights wins by African Americans changing the United States for the better. There were also some tax cuts. However the funding for the Great Society would take a toll on the U.S. Putting the United States into a budget deficit. Warren Court
This case ruled separate but equal accommodation's for African Americans did not violate the fourteenth amendment. After this law was passed the Jim Crow Laws were able to be passed -this sparked tension in the African American community Plessy V.Ferguson (1896)
Created in 1909 and led by Thurgood Marshall this group won over 30 Supreme Court cases. The NAACP won a large amount of small segregation related cases which was an attempt to eventually fix a much bigger problem among African-Americans, equality. NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
One of Thurgood Marshall’s many milestones, this was a court case based on segregated education in four very racist states- Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware. In this case the Supreme court segregation as unconstitutional, introducing integrated schooling. Brown v. Board of Education
After the Brown v. Board of Education case allowed for integrated school systems many southern states still did not allow it. In September 1957 Orval Faubus(Gov. Of Arkansas) ordered the National guard to turn away the nine African- Americans attending Little Rock High school. Eisenhower heard of this and ordered one thousand paratroopers into Little Rock assuring the black students could attend school. - This brought a huge amount of media attention to the unfair treatment of blacks in southern schools. Resistance to school integration
Sparked by Rosa Park’s arrest and led by Jo Ann Robinson and E.D Nixon, African Americans refused to ride any buses in Montgomery for 381 days. This proved to the world that African Americans could organize a successful protest. The Montgomery Bus Boycott
This was one of the many civil rights groups with a final goal of equality. The SCLC hoped to win the support of ordinary Africa Americans of all ages. The group was led by Martin Luther King Junior. SCLC(Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
The SNCC was another civil rights group formed of students mostly famous for their sit-ins(sitting at segregated tables at restaurants and not leaving untill their food is served). This group brought a huge amount of media attention to the true horrific faces of racism SNCC( Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
Riding for Freedom Freedom Riders – Civil rights activists who took a stand against segregation by riding buses through the segregated South (Alabama, Mississippi, etc.) Violence and Protest – Bull Connor and the Birmingham police refused desegregation in Alabama – African Americans were beaten and firebombs were thrown into buses Relief – Federal Marshals arrived to escort freedom riders. – Segregation banned in travel facilities, restrooms, and lunch counters. – Public opinion changed in favor of the civil rights movement
Standing Firm Integrating Schools – Civil rights activists turned their attention to desegregation in schools and universities. – James Meredith and Ole Miss Martin Luther King steps up – MLK flies to Birmingham to help efforts to desegregate the city – Arrested by Bull Connor Kennedy takes a stand – Desegregation of Ole Miss – Demands congress pass a civil rights bill Medgar Evers – NAACP field secretary (Shot by Bryon de la Beckwith)
Marching to Washington More than 250,000 people marched to Washington – Goal was to the get the civil rights bill passed MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech – Provokes civil rights moral Violence breaks out – Churches burned down – JFK is assassinated Civil Rights Bill of 1964 is passed
Voting Rights Freedom Summer – civil rights project aimed at gaining voting rights for African Americans. Robert Moses – member of SNCC who led the civil rights movement in Mississippi for voting rights. Violent Opposition – Three civil rights workers were murdered during the freedom summer Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party – Fannie Lou Hamer- spoke at MFDP convention and changed public opinion to sympathy for African Americans. Selma Campaign – SNCC and SCLC start civil rights campaign in Selma, Alabama. – Goal was to gain voting rights for blacks. – More violence breaks out – Voting Rights Act of 1965- eliminates the literacy tests that disqualified so many blacks from voting.