2Election of 1960 – Focus – Cold War RepublicansRichard NixonRode on success of Eisenhower’s administrationDemocratsJohn F. KennedyYouth & energy=Kennedy mystique.This is the first election where tv played a role with the presidential election – world turned their attention to what the candidates looked likeKennedy was scrutinized for his catholic religion
3The Election Campaign of 1960 Issues in the ElectionThe Economy & the Cold WarKennedy warned of a “missile gap”Nixon & Kennedy considered themselves “Cold Warriors” – (strong communist fighters)2. Religion- Kennedy’s Catholicism became an issue; Kennedy addressed the issue in a speech.The Kennedy-Nixon Debates1st televised presidential debates (72 million viewers)4 debates totalKennedy appeared to win televised debates** Both parties spent $6-$7.5 million on TV & radio ads
5John F. Kennedy*Youngest CandidateElected as US presidentAged 41.“Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.”
6Kennedy Policies New Frontier Kennedy’s Domestic programs Increase aid in education, federal support for health & migrant workers, and Civil Rights.Few of JFK’s programs passed (because he had won by such a slim popular vote margin, few Democrats would go out on a limb to support his ideas)Kennedy & the EconomyUS economy in recession when JFK was elected.Cut taxesDeficit spending – encouraged Congress to spend money on Space exploration & defense= more jobs & money in circulation.Kept interest rates low* JKF had the 1st Budget to top $100 Billion
7The Supreme Court Mapp v Ohio (1961) Gideon v Wainwright (1963) The Warren CourtChief Justice Earl WarrenLandmark cases that changed America*Brown v. Board of Education (1954)- desegregation of public schools.Baker v Carr (1962)Federal courts could try cases against states redrawing political district lines.Reynolds v Sims (1964)Most states’ current apportionment was unconstitutional“One Man, One Vote”Mapp v Ohio (1961)Unlawfully seized evidence cannot be used in trial.Gideon v Wainwright (1963)Right to a lawyerEscobedo v IllinoisMiranda v Arizona (1966)Miranda rightsEngle v Vitale (1962)States could not compose & require recital of official school prayers.Griswold v ConnecticutProhibition of birth control devices violated right to privacy.These are all landmark because they have to do with individual rights which had not been addressed and ruled on for the individual personal freedoms
8Foreign Policy *Flexible Response *Alliance for Progress *Peace Corps Kennedy pushed for a build up of conventional troops & weapons along with Special Forces (Green Berets)Kennedy felt that Eisenhower had relied to heavily on nuclear weapons.*Alliance for ProgressPlan to improve relations with South AmericaCreate a free Latin America without support of Communist Revolutions$20 Billion over 10 years to Latin America for better schools, housing etc.*Peace CorpsAid developing nations by sending young people to do humanitarian workSupported special forces like Green Beret
9Kennedy & the Space Race 1957- Soviet Union launched Sputnik- 1st unmanned satellite to orbit the earth.1961- Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin – 1st person to orbit the earth.1961- Kennedy set a goal that the US would land a man on the moon by the end of the decade.1962- John Glenn- 1st American to orbit the earth.Americans landed on the moon; Neil Armstrong (1st man to walk on the moon).
10JOHN F. KENNEDY BECOMES PRESIDENT OF THE US IN 1961 AND INHERITS A PLANED INVASION OF CUBA FROM THE EISENHOWER ADMINISTRATIONADDRESS TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS, SEPTEMBER 25, 1961ALL US BUSINESSES IN CUBA ARE NATIONALIZED (TAKEN OVER BY THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT) WITHOUT COMPENSATION. THE US BROKE OFF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH CUBA AND SAW CASTRO AS AN ENEMY OF THE US.
11BAY OF PIGS INVASION SITE 1959- Fidel Castro & communist revolutionaries toppled the US backed government of Fulgencio Batista & established ties with the Soviet Union.Eisenhower & CIA trained Cuban exiles for an invasion of Cuba to overthrow Castro.April Kennedy carried out the plan- 1,400 exiled Cubans landed at the Bay of Pigs.PATCH IS THE UNIT SYMBOL FOR THE CUBAN EXILE INVASIONFORCE.BAY OF PIGS INVASION SITE
12Kennedy cancelled US air support, boats ran aground= disaster!! THE INVASION WAS A FAILURE AND ALL THE CUBAN EXILE INVASION FORCE WAS EITHER KILLED OR CAPTURED BY CASTRO’S ARMY.CASTRO’S FORCES ON THE MARCHCASTRO’S AIR FORCE DESTROYED THE INVADING SHIPS
13VISUAL SYMBOL OF Cold War ( DIVIDE BETWEEN US & USSR) until 1989 THE BERLIN WALLJune Kennedy & Soviet leader Khrushchev met in Austria.Khrushchev worried about flow of East Germans leaving & moving to West Berlin.Khrushchev demanded that US, Britain, & France withdraw from Berlin & recognize the communist government of East Berlin.= KENNEDY REFUSED!VISUAL SYMBOL OF Cold War ( DIVIDE BETWEEN US & USSR) until 1989
14IN JUNE OF 1963 PRESIDENT KENNEDY WENT TO BERLIN AND DELIVERED HIS FAMOUS “ICH BIN EIN BERLINER” ( I AM A BERLINER) TO SHOW U.S. DETERMINATION TO KEEP BERLIN FREE.OBAMA DID THE SAME DURING HIS CAMPAIGN TO SHOW HIS ALLEGIANCE TO EUROPE
15THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1962- US INTELLIGENCE BEGAN RECEIVING REPORTS OF SOVIET MISSILES IN CUBA. A U-2 FLIGHT ON AUGUST 29TH CONFIRMED THE PRESENCE OF SURFACE TO AIR MISSILE BATTERIES IN CUBA. THESE MISSILES WERE DESIGNED TO SHOOT DOWN ENEMY AIRCRAFT.
16PHOTOS LEFT NO DOUBT SOVIETS HAD PUT MISSILES IN CUBA
17DECLASSIFIED 1962 MAP SHOWING THE DISTANCES NUCLEAR ARMED MISSILES WOULD GO IF FIRED FROM CUBA. ALMOST ALL MAJOR US POPULATION CENTERS WERE WITHIN RANGE. MAPS LIKE THIS CONVINCED JFK THAT THE SOVIET MISSILES MUST BE REMOVED FROM CUBA.DO NOT WRITE
18LOW ALTITUDE VIEW OF MISSILE PREPARATION AREA LOW ALTITUDE VIEW OF MISSILE PREPARATION AREA. THE PILOT TAKING THIS SHOT FLEW AT AN ALTITUDE OF ABOUT 250 FEET, AND AT THE SPEED OF SOUND.EACH ONE OF THE RUSSIAN MISSILES IN CUBA HAD THE EXPLOSIVE POWER OF 50 HIROSHIMA TYPE ATOMIC BOMBSDO NOT WRITE
19DO NOT WRITESECRETARY OF DEFENSE ROBERT Mc NAMARA, SECRETARY OF STATE DEAN RUSK AND JFK, THE MAIN POLICY MAKERS DURING THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS ALONG WITH ROBERT KENNEDY.
20JFK HAD TWO CHOICES OF HOW TO DEAL WITH THE SITUATION IN CUBA: FIRST: HE COULD ORDER AIRSTRIKES ON THE MISSILE SITES IN CUBA AND RISK AN ALL OUT NUCLEAR WAR WITH THE USSRSECOND: HE COULD ORDER A NAVAL BLOCKADE (Quarantine) AND STOP SOVIET SHIPS FROM BRINGING IN MISSILES AND OTHER EQUIPMENT. NO ONE KNEW HOW THE RUSSIANS WOULD REACT TO THIS.HE CHOSE THE NAVAL BLOCKADEDO NOT WRITE
21Oct. 28, 1962- Khrushchev gave in to U. S Oct. 28, Khrushchev gave in to U.S. pressure and removed Soviet missiles from Cuba for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba and a US promise to remove US missiles stationed in Turkey.DO NOT WRITESoviet cargo ship leaving Cuba with missiles visible above the deskMissiles being loaded on Soviet ships for return to the Soviet UnionSignificance: brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever, US & Soviets install “hotline” phones for better communication, 1963 nuclear atmospheric test ban treaty- Khrushchev was removed from power by his own people.
22Kennedy’s Assassination November 22, 1963Shot by Lee Harvey OswaldOswald shot 2 days later by Jack Ruby
23*The Warren Commission Chief Justice Warren ledInvestigated the death of Kennedy**Decided Lee Harvey Oswald was lone killerStill left a lot of questions unansweredToday- conspiracy theories are abundant about JFK’s death.
25The Great SocietyJohnson’s vision of a more perfect & equitable society*War on PovertyJohnson wanted to attack poverty in the USEconomic Opportunity ActPurpose to create jobs & fight poverty*Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)Domestic peace corps – putting young people to work in poor neighborhoods
26The Great Society Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Banned segregation in public facilities, more power to forceschool desegregation.24th Amendment- banned poll taxes in federal elections.Voting Rights Act of 1965Ensured African Americans’ right to voteMedicare- Government funded health insurance for the elderly.Medicaid- health insurance for the poor.Head StartEarly preschool programs for poor communitiesDepartment of Housing & Urban DevelopmentAuthorized federal subsidies to cities to build low income housingImmigration Reform Act of 1965Eliminated 1920’s National Origins Act that set quotas on immigration= opened the door for more immigration.
27Results of the Great Society Lack of funds reduced effectivenessVietnam War hurt the programs (took money from some Great Society programs)Lasting programs include: Medicare, Medicaid, Head Start & the Department of Housing & Urban Development