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The New Frontier and the Great Society

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1 The New Frontier and the Great Society
Chapter 20

2 Kennedy and the cold war

3 The Presidential Election of 1960
Republican Candidate: Richard Nixon Rode coattails of Eisenhower popularity Democratic Candidate: John F. Kennedy Promised to ‘get America moving again’ Major Election Issues Economy in Recession Presumed deficit in Cold War

4 The Presidential Election of 1960
Richard Nixon 219 Electoral Votes 40.8% Popular Vote John F. Kennedy 303 Electoral Votes 56.4% Popular Vote Harry. F. Byrd 15 Electoral Votes 2.4% Popular Vote

5 What Helped Kennedy Win…
Kennedy / Nixon Debates Candidates engaged in series of four televised debates Kennedy ‘won’ debates because he ‘looked’ and spoke better than Nixon “That night, image replaced the printed word as the natural language of politics” (Russell Baker) Civil Rights Civil Rights demonstrators arrested in Atlanta, GA (Oct., 1960) Included Martin Luther King Jr. Nixon No position taken Kennedy Sympathized with King  Arranged for bail Gained support & votes from African Americans in South and Midwest

6 The Camelot Years The Camelot Years The ‘Best and the Brightest’
Description of the Kennedy ‘mystique’ in the White House Camelot was the mythical court of King Arthur The ‘Best and the Brightest’ Kennedy surrounded himself with superb team of advisors National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy Harvard University dean Secretary of Defense Mobert McNamara President of Ford Motor Company Secretary of State Dean Rusk President of Rockefeller Foundation Attorney General Robert Kennedy

7 Kennedy’s Military Policy in the Cold War
Kennedy on Eisenhower’s Administration They had not done enough to deal with the Soviets Had allowed Soviets to gain friends worldwide And on America’s doorstep (Cuba) Kennedy’s New Military Policy Flexible Response Military policy developed during the Kennedy administration that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crises rather than focusing on the use of nuclear arms Created ‘Special Forces’ or Green Berets

8 Change in Cuba Fidel Castro Problems with Castro
Revolutionary leader who took control from former leader Fulgencio Batista “Revolutionaries are not born, they are made by poverty, inequality, and dictatorship” (Fidel Castro) Promised to eliminate all Problems with Castro Soviet sympathizer Seized oil refineries in Cuba Broke up commercial farms & created communes

9 The Bay of Pigs Bay of Pigs Invasion – April 17, 1961
Covert American invasion of Cuba to spark mass uprising to overthrow Castro as leader Developed during Eisenhower administration Results of Invasion  Complete Disaster Military interventions and plans did not work Made Americans look like fools Embarrassed Kennedy End Result U.S. pays $53 million ransom for return of surviving commandos Castro was pushed toward the Soviet Union Permanent communist threat in the Western Hemisphere

10 The Cuban Missile Crisis October, 1962
American spy planes identify Soviet missile bases ready to launch in Cuba Kennedy informed U.S. citizens and vowed to remove missiles Six days of uncertainty of possible nuclear war Khruschev eventually agrees to remove missiles with U.S. considerations

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12 The Berlin Crisis East Berlin had lost 20% of population to West Berlin in 11 years since Berlin Airlift Showed ineffectiveness of communist rule in East Berlin Khruschev threatened to close all access to West Berlin Kennedy refused to give up access to West Berlin Berlin is… “the great testing place of Western courage and will.” (Kennedy) Berlin Wall is built – Aug. 13, 1961 Served as symbol of communist oppression

13 Easing the Cold War The ‘Hot Line’ Limited Test Ban Treaty
Dedicated phone line between the White House and the Kremlin (Soviet capital) Allowed countries to communicate immediately in case of crisis Limited Test Ban Treaty Agreement between the U.S. and Soviets that banned nuclear testing in the atmosphere

14 The new frontier Astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American in space on May 5, 1961 aboard Freedom 7. The entire flight only took 15 minutes from liftoff to splashdown. The trip reaffirmed the belief of American ingenuity and the promise of American progress.

15 Kennedy on American Needs
Kennedy proposed many changes to Congress to address needs of Americans Medial care for the aged Rebuild run down urban areas Educational Aid Conservative Republicans and Southern Democrats blocked passage of many proposals Kennedy lacked popular mandate (a clear indication that voters approved of his plans) due to his slim victory Was the same coalition that blocked Truman’s Fair Deal The government eventually engaged in ‘deficit spending’ in attempts to stimulate the economy Increased defense spending Increased minimum wage Extended unemployment

16 Addressing Poverty Abroad
Peace Corps A program of volunteer assistance to developing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America Known as ‘Kennedy’s Kiddie Korps’ Volunteers worked as Agricultural advisers Teachers Health aides Alliance for Progress Offered economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries Goal: To deter these countries from picking up Fidel Castro’s revolutionary ideas

17 The Race to the Moon April 12, 1961 – Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes first human in space Kennedy vows to surpass the Soviets by sending an American to the moon National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constructed facilities in Cape Canaveral, FL Mission Control Center in Houston, TX Worked and eventually achieved goal of sending a mission to the moon in July, 1969 Result of Space Program: Universities expanded science programs New industries and technologies to be used in business, industry, and producing consumer goods

18 Tragedy in Dallas Kennedy traveled to Texas in 1963 to mend problems in state’s Democratic party Kennedy traveled through Dallas with Gov. John Connally & wife in open-air limousine to Texas School Book Depository Kennedy was shot and killed just after noon by an assassin November 22, 1963

19 Who Killed President Kennedy?
Dallas police charged Lee Harvey Oswald with the shooting Palm print was on rifle used to kill Kennedy November 24, 1963 Oswald was being transferred between jails as Americans watched on television Nightclub owner Jack Ruby jumped through security and killed Oswald

20 The Warren Commission Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren led commission to investigate Kennedy’s shooting Found that Oswald has operated alone Later investigations have claimed otherwise that other shooter(s) may have been involved Possible Conspiracy Theories Plot by anti-Castro Cubans Communists CIA

21 The Great Society

22 Kennedy’s Successor Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) became President following Kennedy’s assassination Political History House of Rep. Senate Senate Majority Leader Strong legislative results and Southern backing swayed Kennedy to choose as running mate

23 The Remainder of the Term
Johnson looked to continue the plans and changes proposed by Kennedy Civil Rights Act of 1964 Discrimination on race, religion, national origin, sex prohibited Tax – cut bill (1964) Eventually decreased federal deficit from $6 billion (1964) to $4 billion (1966) The War on Poverty Economic Opportunity Act $1 billion allocated for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small-business loans, job training

24 The Presidential Election of 1964
Democratic Candidate Lyndon B. Johnson Received public support for attempts to solve nation’s problems More troops in Vietnam “would offer no solution at all to the real problem of Vietnam” Republican Candidate Barry Goldwater Arizona Senator Campaign Tenants Too much government intervention/spending to help Americans Voluntary Social Security Sell Tennessee Valley Authority Suggested using nuclear power on Cuba and North Korea

25 The Presidential Election of 1964
Barry Goldwater 52 Electoral Votes 9.7% Popular Vote Lyndon B. Johnson 486 Electoral Votes 90.3% Popular Vote

26 Building the Great Society
Phrase used to describe Johnson’s program to end poverty and racial injustice in the United States It would create higher standard of living, equal opportunity, richer quality of life for all Great Society Programs Education Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 $1 billion for textbooks and reading materials Healthcare Medicare Government provides hospital insurance and low-cost medical insurance for 65 and older Medicaid Health insurance provided for welfare recipients Immigration Imigration Act of 1965 Ended quota based immigration policies established in 1924

27 The Warren Court Supreme Court made many liberal reforms that aligned with ideas of the day Banned state-sanctioned prayer in public schools State required loyalty oaths unconstitutional Decisions in Congressional reapportionment Reapportionment The way that states redraw election districts based on the changing population in them Baker v. Carr (1962) One person, one vote

28 The Warren Court (cont.)
Rights of the accused The Warren court expanded the rights of people accused of crimes Mapp v. Ohio (f1961) Illegally seized evidence could not be used in state courts Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Courts must provide representation for those who cannot afford it Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) Accused has the right to have a lawyer present during questioning Miranda v. Arizona (1966) Suspects must be read rights before questioning

29 Miranda Warning

30 Impacts of the Great Society
Debates and disagreements over benefits/detriments of the Great Society programs No President since post-WWII had made such reaches of power of government Results of Great Society Poverty levels decreased Tax cuts spurred economy Increased federal deficit Issues overshadowing Great Society programs Cold War Vietnam


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