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JFK & LBJ Ch. 22, Sec. JFK’s Election John F. Kennedy v. Richard M. Nixon. Young, Senate experience, v. age, VP and Congress experience. Sept. 1960-first.

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Presentation on theme: "JFK & LBJ Ch. 22, Sec. JFK’s Election John F. Kennedy v. Richard M. Nixon. Young, Senate experience, v. age, VP and Congress experience. Sept. 1960-first."— Presentation transcript:

1 JFK & LBJ Ch. 22, Sec

2 JFK’s Election John F. Kennedy v. Richard M. Nixon. Young, Senate experience, v. age, VP and Congress experience. Sept first televised presidential debate. – Nixon looked haggard, tired. – Kennedy looked tanned, rested, young. TV viewers say JFK won, radio listeners say Nixon won. – Seen by many as turning point of election. Made tv major part of all campaigns.

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6 JFK seen as not likely to win. – Seen as too young, Catholic (no Catholics ever elected). – Campaigned on promise to get sluggish economy moving (slight recession in late ‘50s). JFK and running mate Lyndon B. Johnson won by VERY slim margin. – Electoral votes-303 to 219. – Popular vote-margin of 119,000 out of 69 million votes cast. JFK elected with no mandate. – Public endorsement of his proposals. – Hard to pass legislation through Congress.

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11 JFK’s Presidency JFK called plans New Frontier. Pushed 3 year tax cut to stimulate economy. – Blocked by Congress. Concerned that 1/5 of America lived below poverty level, wanted to stimulate economy to help. Asked for federal money for education, medical care for elderly. – Both failed in Congress.

12 Many JFK policies did pass. – Housing Act of 1961-$4.9 billion for urban renewal. – Equal Pay Act-doing the same work, get the same pay. – Large military buildup, creation of missile programs. – Extended SS benefits to 5 million, dropped retirement age to 62. – Increased minimum wage. – Created federal programs to deal with juvenile delinquency. – Signed Nuclear Test Ban Treaty-first nuclear weapons treaty, limited nuke tests.

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15 Space Race April 1961-USSR sent Yuri Gagarin into space onboard Vostok. – US feared we were falling behind in space race. JFK boosted funding to NASA. May 1961-Alan Shepard became 1 st American in space. May 25-JFK committed US to landing man on moon by end of 1960s. Feb. 20, 1962-John Glenn made first US orbit of earth. Apollo missions will enable man to reach moon in 1969.

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22 Assassination Nov. 22, JFK, wife Jackie, TX Governor John Connally, wife Nelly traveled to Dallas to campaign for reelection. – Traveled in motorcade through downtown Dallas. Drove into Dealey Plaza, past Texas School Book Depository. – Lee Harvey Oswald fired three shots, striking JFK & Connally, missed, struck JFK again. – Car rushed to Parkland Hospital, JFK pronounced dead at 1 pm. LBJ sworn in aboard Air Force One.

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30 Multiple suspects in JFK assassination. – Mafia, Castro, LBJ, Oswald. Oswald caught, arrested. – While being transferred between jails, club owner Jack Ruby shot and killed him. Warren Commission, led by Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, investigated JFK killing. – Declared Oswald acted alone, no conspiracy. – Many don’t believe it.

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38 LBJ Born & raised in TX, entered House of Representatives as Democrat in Later elected to Senate, rose to top positions (Minority & Majority Leader). – Powerful, did whatever it took to pass or oppose legislation, including bullying friends & opponents. Tried for & lost bid for Democratic presidential nomination, accepted VP position from JFK. – Did not care for VP position, did not like JFK.

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41 The Great Society Created program called Great Society. – Passed in JFK’s memory. Laws included: – Poverty relief, education aid, healthcare, voting rights, urban renewal, economic stimulus LBJ Ran for election against Republican Barry Goldwater. – Won major victory, had mandate for programs. Got JFK’s tax cuts passed, cut gov’t spending to prevent deficits.

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43 Passed Economic Opportunity Act-provided $950 million for work programs, anti-illiteracy programs, anti-poverty programs, etc. – Started Head Start-preschool programs for low- income families, included healthcare, food, social services. – Started VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)- Volunteers to help in poor communities. Elementary & Secondary Act-money to schools with low-income kids. Passed Medicare-Low-cost medical care for those over 65. Passed Medicaid-Low-cost health insurance for any who could not afford health insurance. Passed Immigration Act of 1965-Set new limits on immigration.

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46 Supreme Court “Warren Court” Named after Chief Justice Earl Warren. – Engel v. Vitale-religious prayer in public schools unconstitutional. – Mapp v. Ohio-evidence seized illegally not admissible in court. – Escobedo v. Illinois-suspect must have access to attorney while being questioned. – Miranda v. Arizona-suspect must be warned of rights before being questioned. Miranda Rule-right to remain silent, anything said be used in court, right to attorney, attorney will be appointed if you can’t afford one.

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50 Court also handed down decisions on apportionment. – Distribution of seats in legislature among electoral districts. Baker v. Carr-”one man, one vote”-each person’s vote counts the same, regardless where they live. Reynolds v. Sims-state districts not based on “one man, one vote” violated 14 th Amendment (Equal Protection Clause).

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52 Effects of Great Society Programs. Seemed very successful at first Criticism grew over price of programs, yet poverty did not greatly decrease. Some felt programs created “culture of dependency” – I can’t get ahead, only gov’t can help. – Can make a better living unemployed, on gov’t programs.


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