Presentation on theme: "JFK & LBJ Ch. 22, Sec. JFK’s Election John F. Kennedy v. Richard M. Nixon. Young, Senate experience, v. age, VP and Congress experience. Sept. 1960-first."— Presentation transcript:
JFK’s Election John F. Kennedy v. Richard M. Nixon. Young, Senate experience, v. age, VP and Congress experience. Sept. 1960-first televised presidential debate. – Nixon looked haggard, tired. – Kennedy looked tanned, rested, young. TV viewers say JFK won, radio listeners say Nixon won. – Seen by many as turning point of election. Made tv major part of all campaigns.
JFK seen as not likely to win. – Seen as too young, Catholic (no Catholics ever elected). – Campaigned on promise to get sluggish economy moving (slight recession in late ‘50s). JFK and running mate Lyndon B. Johnson won by VERY slim margin. – Electoral votes-303 to 219. – Popular vote-margin of 119,000 out of 69 million votes cast. JFK elected with no mandate. – Public endorsement of his proposals. – Hard to pass legislation through Congress.
JFK’s Presidency JFK called plans New Frontier. Pushed 3 year tax cut to stimulate economy. – Blocked by Congress. Concerned that 1/5 of America lived below poverty level, wanted to stimulate economy to help. Asked for federal money for education, medical care for elderly. – Both failed in Congress.
Many JFK policies did pass. – Housing Act of 1961-$4.9 billion for urban renewal. – Equal Pay Act-doing the same work, get the same pay. – Large military buildup, creation of missile programs. – Extended SS benefits to 5 million, dropped retirement age to 62. – Increased minimum wage. – Created federal programs to deal with juvenile delinquency. – Signed Nuclear Test Ban Treaty-first nuclear weapons treaty, limited nuke tests.
Space Race April 1961-USSR sent Yuri Gagarin into space onboard Vostok. – US feared we were falling behind in space race. JFK boosted funding to NASA. May 1961-Alan Shepard became 1 st American in space. May 25-JFK committed US to landing man on moon by end of 1960s. Feb. 20, 1962-John Glenn made first US orbit of earth. Apollo missions will enable man to reach moon in 1969.
Assassination Nov. 22, JFK, wife Jackie, TX Governor John Connally, wife Nelly traveled to Dallas to campaign for reelection. – Traveled in motorcade through downtown Dallas. Drove into Dealey Plaza, past Texas School Book Depository. – Lee Harvey Oswald fired three shots, striking JFK & Connally, missed, struck JFK again. – Car rushed to Parkland Hospital, JFK pronounced dead at 1 pm. LBJ sworn in aboard Air Force One.
Multiple suspects in JFK assassination. – Mafia, Castro, LBJ, Oswald. Oswald caught, arrested. – While being transferred between jails, club owner Jack Ruby shot and killed him. Warren Commission, led by Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, investigated JFK killing. – Declared Oswald acted alone, no conspiracy. – Many don’t believe it.
LBJ Born & raised in TX, entered House of Representatives as Democrat in 1937. Later elected to Senate, rose to top positions (Minority & Majority Leader). – Powerful, did whatever it took to pass or oppose legislation, including bullying friends & opponents. Tried for & lost bid for Democratic presidential nomination, accepted VP position from JFK. – Did not care for VP position, did not like JFK.
The Great Society Created program called Great Society. – Passed in JFK’s memory. Laws included: – Poverty relief, education aid, healthcare, voting rights, urban renewal, economic stimulus. 1964-LBJ Ran for election against Republican Barry Goldwater. – Won major victory, had mandate for programs. Got JFK’s tax cuts passed, cut gov’t spending to prevent deficits.
Passed Economic Opportunity Act-provided $950 million for work programs, anti-illiteracy programs, anti-poverty programs, etc. – Started Head Start-preschool programs for low- income families, included healthcare, food, social services. – Started VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)- Volunteers to help in poor communities. Elementary & Secondary Act-money to schools with low-income kids. Passed Medicare-Low-cost medical care for those over 65. Passed Medicaid-Low-cost health insurance for any who could not afford health insurance. Passed Immigration Act of 1965-Set new limits on immigration.
Supreme Court “Warren Court” Named after Chief Justice Earl Warren. – Engel v. Vitale-religious prayer in public schools unconstitutional. – Mapp v. Ohio-evidence seized illegally not admissible in court. – Escobedo v. Illinois-suspect must have access to attorney while being questioned. – Miranda v. Arizona-suspect must be warned of rights before being questioned. Miranda Rule-right to remain silent, anything said be used in court, right to attorney, attorney will be appointed if you can’t afford one.
Court also handed down decisions on apportionment. – Distribution of seats in legislature among electoral districts. Baker v. Carr-”one man, one vote”-each person’s vote counts the same, regardless where they live. Reynolds v. Sims-state districts not based on “one man, one vote” violated 14 th Amendment (Equal Protection Clause).
Effects of Great Society Programs. Seemed very successful at first Criticism grew over price of programs, yet poverty did not greatly decrease. Some felt programs created “culture of dependency” – I can’t get ahead, only gov’t can help. – Can make a better living unemployed, on gov’t programs.