#1Every28 An Incomplete List of Fatal Black and Brown Violability Michael Brown, Ezell Ford, Britton Esrael, Rekia Boyd, John Crawford, Michael Taylor, Philippe Holland, Mallas Green, Kiwane Carrington, Gabriella Navarez, Denzel Curnell, Sean Bell, Shereese Francis, Kimani Gray, Sharmel Edwards, Kendrec Lavelle McDade, Ervin Jefferson, Remarley Graham, Shantel Davis, Timothy Russell, Donald Johnson, Marquez Smart, Jersey Green, Robert Dumas Jr., Manuel Loggins Jr., Tyisha Miller, Michael Lembhard, Johnnie Kamachi Warren, Raymond Allen, Nehemiah Dillard, Wendel Allen, Patrick Dorismond, Angelo Clark, Kanthryn Johnston, Duane Brown, Seven Rodriguez, Pearlie Golden, Ousmane Zongo, Timothy Stansbury Jr., Melvin Lawhorn, Miriam Carey, Sheron Jackson, Tendai Nhekairo, Christopher Kissane, Bo Morrison, Aiyana Jones, Tarika Wilson, Stephon Watts, Atwain White, Orlando Barlow, Aaron Campbell, Victor Steen, Steven Eugene Washington, Alonzo Ashley, Wendell Allen, Ronald Madison, James Brissette, Justin Sipp, Travaris McGill, Dante Price, Jonathan Ferrell, Amadou Diallo, Mark Clark, Fred Hampton, Trayvon Martin, Jordan Davis, Renisha McBride, Oscar Grant, Jesus Huerta, Yvette Smith, Aiyana Jones, Eric Garner, Eleanor Bumpers, Michael Stewart, Jimmie Lee Jackson, Roman Ducksworth, Samuel Ephesians Hammond Jr., Delano Herman Middleton and Henry Ezekial Smith, Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley
MILITARIZATION OF URBAN SPACE http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2014/08/police-violence-ferguson-missouri-big-picture.html
EXAMPLES OF MILITARIZATION “War on terror” brought to every US city: training, supply of military goods, surveillance of communities of color / Muslim communities, police harassment, incarceration rates increase with police surveillance – and then prisoners are recruited into the US military! Recruitment in US prisons and poor neighborhoods during wartime
Stephen Graham (2012) describes how the US military brought tactics from Baghdad, Iraq, to New York and other cities to implant “security zones” (140). He argues that “these blurring processes thus sustain the imagination of all cities everywhere as key battlespaces requiring permanent targeting and mobilization within limitless imaginations of war ” (140). Stephen Graham’s 2011 book
STEPHEN GRAHAM (2012: 137) “Practices of militarization also invariably rely on the normalization of military paradigms of thought, action and policy; (attempts at) the aggressive disciplining of bodies, places and identities seen not to befit the often masculinized notions of nation, citizenship or body (and the connections between them); and the deployment of wide ranges of propagandist material which romanticizes or sanitizes violence as a means of righteous revenge or achieving some God-given purpose. Above all, militarization and war involve attempts to forge powerful new links between cultures, states, technologies and citizenship.” Graham, S. (2012b) When life itself is war: on the urbanization of military and security doctrine International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36(1): 136-155.
MILITARY = POLICE THE MILITARY COMES HOME What now is the distinction between the US military and the local police? Is there one? Military tactics imported to US police US military offers police services in places like Iraq and Afghanistan after war; US military operate in US city spaces Role of Israeli military training: IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) trained St Louis County Police in recent years, in IsraelIDF (Israeli Defense Forces) trained St Louis County Police in recent years, in Israel Ferguson PD now aided by Justice Department after Mike Brown’s murder – but this is not progress! The Justice Department is the entity channeling military supplies to local PDs nationally. Obama has called for a review of these policies recently.
LOST IN TRANSLATION: POOR TRAINING IN USE OF MILITARY SUPPLIES “In the infantry, we teach ‘muzzle awareness,’ ” said Paul D. Eaton, a retired general who previously served as the Army’s chief of infantry at Fort Benning, Ga. “Their fingers are off the trigger. They are on the trigger guard. The barrel is either straight down or no higher than a 45-degree angle. The effort is to declare a presence, but not to declare you are on the offensive.”Paul D. Eaton http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/24/us/in-washington-second-thoughts-on-arming- police.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3As%2C%7B%221%22%3A%22RI%3A10%22%7D&_r=0
MILITARY GEAR IN COLUMBUS http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/08/15/us /surplus-military-equipment-map.html http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/08/15/us /surplus-military-equipment-map.html
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the- watch/wp/2014/08/13/tiny-georgia-police- department-posts-terrifying-swat-video/ http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the- watch/wp/2014/08/13/tiny-georgia-police- department-posts-terrifying-swat-video/ White military masculinity in performance, violence, and state power!