Presentation on theme: "Robert Schware, Global ICT Department & Kayoko Shibata, Gender and Development Group June 11, 2003 If you don’t ask for gender in a Bank project, you won’t."— Presentation transcript:
Robert Schware, Global ICT Department & Kayoko Shibata, Gender and Development Group June 11, 2003 If you don’t ask for gender in a Bank project, you won’t get it Engendering ICT Ensuring gender equality in ICT for development or,
2 Photo: SchoolNet, Uganda on Addressing Gender Divide in the digital divide
3 Why this study-broadly Since the 1970s awareness of disparities in rights and resources between men and women affecting access to benefits of development has increased globally.
4 Why this study-specifically Responds to call of WB/OED (2002) for better integration of gender considerations into the design of Bank-supported projects so that both men and women are able to access the benefits equitably. Many Bank-supported projects have an ICT component. To investigate the potential of ICT for promoting gender-equitable development in Bank projects. Funding for this study has been provided by the Government of Japan.
5 Areas examined by study Employment both in the formal IT sector and in the informal, semi-formal area of micro and small enterprises. Education to provide a base for using ICT and new models of delivery. ICT-enabled delivery of social services. Using ICT for political empowerment. National ICT policies. Consideration of gender issues in Bank projects cutting across many sectors.
6 This presentation Concentrates on analysis of consideration of gender issues in World Bank projects. Based on desk study of some 200 projects and interviews with TTLs.
7 What does it mean to “engender ICT”? New meaning of “ engender ” : –“ integrating gender into development work. ” “ Engendering ICT ” - process of identifying and removing gender disparities in the access to and use of ICT. Adapting ICT to the special needs, constraints, and opportunities of women. Taking advantage of women ’ s special knowledge and strong informal networks that may combine electronic with traditional communication systems.
8 Telecentre Manager showing some people in the community how to search the web, Jakraj, Thailand. Photo: Warren Wong
9 Gender issues in WB ICT projects Study: broad sample of Bank projects from the ICT sector and those with ICT components from other sectors to determine extent of inclusion of gender issues. The half-full glass... Nearly half of projects considered gender as an element in the overall rationale for the project But consideration was often only a mention of gender or description of the varying social roles of men and women. The other half of the glass... More than half of the projects examined paid no attention to gender issues whatsoever.
10 ICT component treated as purely technical, without considering social impact or gender differentials Only one third of the projects included actions that targeted women or strengthened institutions likely to target women. One-third of projects aimed to undertake actions that promoted gender-equitable access to resources. When ICT components were examined for gender issues, results were dismal Fewer than ten percent of the projects examined considered gender issues in information technology.
11 Successful incorporation of gender issues in World Bank projects: examples Argentina: education project teaching information technology in secondary schools and analyzing results by sex and class. Bulgaria: land registration information system that recognizes the gender issue of women ’ s access to land registration information. Ghana: an agricultural services ICT project that targets women farmers for the diffusion of information and has a sex-disaggregated database of food and agricultural statistics. India: an IT technician training project that, through the provision of hostels and scholarships, supports women students studying in their own states. Macedonia: ICT training for youth aiming to improve the situation of girls from minority ethnic groups who are underrepresented in education.
12 More “best practices” projects Mexico: project to deliver ICT services to micro-enterprises that allocate funds to train women. Mozambique: mineral resources information management project that addresses gender issues in artisanal mining. Mozambique: higher education project in Mozambique that increases Internet access for institutions of higher education with a focus on gender equity. Peru: agricultural extension project that selects information technology service providers inter alia on the basis of their capability to work with rural women. Tanzania: establishment of agricultural extension information and communication centers that reserve 30 percent of places for women and included women ’ s issues in training.
13 Some findings A large number of projects paid some attention to gender, but mostly not in a meaningful way. Assurances of gender consideration or mentions of gender were not matched by project actions. Despite a mandate to include social analysis in all project preparation documents, there were many cases where social analysis was relevant but not applied.
14 If you don’t ask for gender, you don’t get gender Potential of ICT to help achieve equitable and sustainable development will not be realized without special attention to gender issues. Gender-aware results, in ICT as in other areas, do not emerge without concomitant effort. What is needed is the application of gender analysis and gender- aware project design, implementation, and evaluation. Activities must include both men and women stakeholders to ensure that opportunities to utilize technologies are not inhibited by cultural dictates on seclusion, restrictions on mobility, or the gendered division of labor.
15 WB Village Self-help Kiosk Pilot Project, Polonnaruwa District, Sri Lanka Photo: Meena Munshi
16 WB Village Self-help Kiosk pilot project, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka Photo: Meena Munshi
17 To involve both men and women, ICT projects should see that: Women are involved in the design and implementation of projects. Projects target men and women equally (establishing separate access and training strategies if necessary). Account is taken of the social division of labor, by which most domestic responsibilities fall upon women. Content should be locally appropriate and of value to women as well as men.
18 Difference in ICT use between men and women ICTs are not about technology alone — they are also about social impact. There are differences between the way men and women use ICTs — task managers should ask themselves these questions when they design and implement projects. Do ICTs impact men and women differently? Do men and women have equal access - computer skill training and use of the new systems? Are both men and women able to transmit their knowledge through the media?
19 Virtually every ICT project has gender issues Gender issues should be considered from the beginning of project design, not added in hindsight. The number of women involved in project design and implementation is not a guarantee of gender awareness- include gender experts or receive input from organizations that work on gender Successful ICT projects do not need high-end technology to address gender issues. Available and affordable ICTs can also make a significant impact on gender. Photo: Grameen USA
20 Recommendations to engender WB ICT projects At the initial stage of project development, project teams should be made aware of useful tools and good practice examples of gender and ICT, such as in the toolkit that accompanies the study. World Bank staff working on operations that involve ICT should receive training on gender issues in ICTs.
21 Training and dissemination plan Hold a series of training seminars on Engendering ICT. Target Audience: Staff involved in ICT projects. Gender specialists who are involved in projects with ICT components to find out how the use of ICTs could empower women and men. Staff who work on the areas that this study examined, including education, MSE/labor market, and delivery of social services. Distribute the main report and the toolkit (web-based CD) in July 2003.
22 Pong Phayao T-Centre, Thailand. Photo: Warren Wong
23 Ban Mae T-Centre, Thailand. Photo: Warren Wong
24 Ban Mae T-Centre, Thailand. Photo: Warren Wong
25 Telecenter Manager doing web search at Ban Mae T-Centre, Thailand. Photo: Warren Wong
26 Photo: People’s First Network, Solomon Islands
27 Inside a Phone Shop in Nepal Photo: Warren Wong
28 Computer Class in NOCHIYAGAMA in the ANURADHAPURA district in the North Central Province. Sri Lanka, run by the Don Bosco Church. Photo: Harendra de Silva