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Compiled by Mrs J Wright, Durban Girls’ High School,2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Compiled by Mrs J Wright, Durban Girls’ High School,2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Compiled by Mrs J Wright, Durban Girls’ High School,2006

2 The Problem – an Ulcer! Definition : ulcer n. an open sore on an external or internal surface Slide 1

3 Ulcers – found in the stomach lining, and though to be caused by stressful living. Slide 2

4 Using an endoscope to view an ulcer and a tissue sample then taken to be analysed View of an ulcer in the stomach Slide 3

5 Dr Robin Warren - pathologist Team work The curious observation made by Dr Robin Warren in the samples given to him to analyse. These observations were investigated by Dr Marshall. Slide 4

6 In the laboratory. Team work to produce a culture of H. pylori! Slide 5

7 Dr Barry Marshall – 1981, Australia Slide 6

8 Culture of Helicobacter pylori A sample was taken and viewed under the Electron Microscope After months of trials and failures, an unplanned long weekend in the incubator produced a result! Slide 7

9 Helicobacter pylori The villian! A B C Slide 8

10 Removal of H. pylori and healing of the ulcer? Scanning E.M of H.pylori on the stomach walls. Slide 9

11 How the ulcer is formed H. pylori causes excess production of HCl by cells of the stomach lining. The stomach is trying to kill the bacterium. The excess acid removes the mucus layer and the stomach cells are then attacked, resulting in an ulcer. Acid inhibitors such as Tagamet now usually prescribed for relief but they have to be taken continually. Slide 10

12 Test kits for Helicobactera pylori Slide 11

13 Drinking the urea solution: Blowing out into a test tube. Slide 12

14 H. pylori breath test – gas chromatograph reads results. Slide 13

15 How the test works. Ammonia identified in exhaled air. This is due to H. pylori conversion of Urea into ammonia. Slide 14

16 Results that provide further proof of the connection between H pylori and ulcers. H pylori removed within 2 weeks after taking antibiotics! Slide 15

17 Communicating their findings Slide16 Book: The Ease & Difficulty of a New Discovery. Author: Robin Warren

18 Acceptance at last! Slide17

19 Slide 18

20 Nobel prize announced - 2005 From initial discovery in 1981 until acknowledgment by the scientific community in 2005! Slide 19

21 H. pylori in the blood Spread by poverty and down through the families! Now thought to be responsible for stomach cancer and heart disease. Remove H pylori and reduce the risk! Further findings… Simple prevention! Slide 20

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