Presentation on theme: "Sadistic sexual aggressors and sexual murderers: Empirical and theoretical issues Jean Proulx 1, 2 Éric Beauregard 3 1.Université."— Presentation transcript:
Sadistic sexual aggressors and sexual murderers: Empirical and theoretical issues Jean Proulx 1, 2 Éric Beauregard 3 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 1.Université de Montréal (School of Criminology, CICC) 2.Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal 3.University of South Florida (Department of Criminology)
Definition KRAFFT-EBING (1886) DSM-IV (APA, 1994) –Sexual arousal – pleasure –Physical or psychological (humiliation) suffering of the victim Fantasies Behaviors
Epidemiology Groth and Birnbaum (1979)5% Barbaree, Seto, Serin, Amos, and Preston (1994)11.7% Proulx, St-Yves, Guay, and Ouimet (1999)18%
Developmental factors (Brittain, 1970; Dietz et al., 1990; Gratzer & Bradford, 1995; Langevin et al., 1985; MacCulloch et al., 1983; Warren et al., 1996) Social isolation Low self-esteem Deviant sexual fantasies Sexually incompetent Paraphilias (voyeurism, exhibitionism, fetichism) Physically abused as a child
Phallometric studies Sadistic offenders showed a sexual preference for rape stimuli –Barbaree, Seto, Serin, Amos, & Preston (1994) –Fedora et al. (1992) –Proulx (2001) Sadistic offenders did not show a sexual preference for rape stimuli –Marshall, Kennedy, & Yates (2002) –Rice, Chaplin, Harris, & Coutts (1994) –Seto & Kuban (1996) –Langevin et al. (1985)
Personality disorders Psychopath and narcissistic « We consider the unemotional, cold tone of the offenders during their crime as evidence, if any more were needed, of their lack of empathy for their victims. This lack of empathy may reflect psychopathy, narcissism, and an extraordinary capacity to dehumanize victims, or a combination of these » (p. 175) (Dietz, Hazelwood, & Warren, 1990). Avoidant and schizoid (Proulx, 2001).
Precrime and situational factors (Dietz, Hazelwood, & Warren, 1990) Low self-esteem Deviant sexual fantasies Careful planning of the offense
Limitations of studies on sadistic offenders Few empirical studies on sexual sadism Studies with small samples Biased samples (serial sexual murderers) Mixed samples (sexual aggressors of adult females or males, sexual aggressors of children) Standardized psychometric instruments rarely used
Subjects MTC-R-3 Sadism Scale – A 43 sadistic offenders –18 sexual murderers of women –25 sexual aggressors of women 98 nonsadistic offenders –22 sexual murderers of women –76 sexual aggressors of women
Procedure Semi-structured interview Phallometric assessment MCMI-I DSM-IV, axis II
Developmental factors (prior to 18 years of age) SadistsNonsadists *Psychologically abused (humiliation)63%43% Physically abused56%44% Sexually abused35%25% **Pornography36%15% *Compulsive masturbation25%12% ***Deviant sexual fantasies49%19% *Low self esteem46%28% *Nightmares25%10% *Social isolation53%35% *Temper tantrums48%26% * p<.05; ** p <.01; *** p<.001
Criminal career SadistsNonsadists Previous sexual charges2.52.0 Previous violent charges4.35.0 Previous property charges5.03.8
Precrime factors (48 hours before the crime) SadistsNonsadists ***Conflicts with women59%21% **Anger66%39% *Sexual arousal14%33% ***Deviant sexual fantasies47%17% * p<.05; ** p <.01; *** p<.001
References Brittain, R. P. (1970). The sadistic murderer. Medicine, Science and the Law, 10, 198-207. Dietz, P. E., Hazelwood, R., & Warren, J. (1990). The sexually sadistic criminal and his offenses. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 18, 163- 178. Gratzer, T., & Bradford, M. W. (1995). Offender and offense characteristics of sexual sadists A comparative study. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 40, 450-455. Krafft-Ebing, R. (1886). Psychopathia Sexualis. (F.S. Klaf-traduction, 1965). New York: Arcade. Langevin, R., Bain, J., Ben-Aron, M. K., Coulthard, R., Day, D., Handy, L., Heasman, G., Hucker, S. J., Purins, J. E., Roper, V., Russon, A. E., Webster, C. D., & Wortzman, G. (1985). Sexual aggression: Constructing a predictive equation. In R. Langevin (Ed.), Erotic preference, gender identity and aggression in men: New research studies (pp. 39-76). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. MacCulloch, M. J., Snowden, P. R., Wood, P. J. W., & Mills, H. E. (1983). Sadistic fantasy, sadistic behaviour and offending. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 20-29. Marshall, W. L., Kennedy, P., & Yates, P. (2002). Issues concerning the reliability and validity of the diagnosis of sexual sadism applied in prison settings. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and treatment, 14, 301-311. Warren, J., Hazelwood, R., & Dietz, P. (1996). The sexually sadistic serial killer. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 41, 970-974.