Presentation on theme: "Single-bullet theory (SBT) $ Only 3 shots were fired $ 1 shot entered the back of Kennedy’s head, inflicting a fatal wound. $ 1 shot missed completely,"— Presentation transcript:
Single-bullet theory (SBT) $ Only 3 shots were fired $ 1 shot entered the back of Kennedy’s head, inflicting a fatal wound. $ 1 shot missed completely, injuring bystander James Tague on the ricochet. $ 1 shot remains to inflict 2 wounds in Kennedy and 5 in Connally. SBT is the crux of the Warren Commission Report and the keystone to the lone gunman conclusion. Kennedy and Connally were hit by same bullet or a second gunman was firing a 4 th shot
Inductive Reasoning The single-bullet theory is a strong inductive argument because the five premises on which it is based pertain to the conclusion. But for the argument to be cogent (acceptable), all of the following premises must be true: Only three shots were fired from the Texas School Book Depository The body wounds of Kennedy and Connally were inflicted almost simultaneously. The seating positions of Kennedy and Connally were aligned with the bullet trajectory. The wounds suffered by Kennedy and Connally were aligned with the bullet trajectory. CE 399 found on Connally’s stretcher at Parkland Hospital Memorial was the bullet that passed through Kennedy and Connally.
Limited time frame in which to operate the gun The Mannlicher-Carcano 655 required at least 2.3 seconds between shots to operate by an expert and without allowing for re-aiming. Warren Commission claims the first shot could have come as early as frame 210 of the Zapruder film because trees blocked the possibility of an earlier shot. Connally shows first signs of reaction to gunshot wound at Z236-Z238 or 1.4-1.6 seconds after Kennedy was shot. Warren Commission also claims that the first shot could have come as late as Z225, thereby lessening the interval of interaction, but reducing the operation time between shots.
Evidence disputing simultaneous wounding FBI and Secret Service investigation contend that Kennedy and Connally were hit by separate bullets, thereby ignoring the missed shot. In his Warren Commission testimony, Connally insists that he heard the first shot and had time to turn around before being hit by second shot. Dr. Robert Shaw, the attending physician, disputes the Warren Commission claim that Connally suffered a “delayed reaction” to his wounds; he insists that the wounds were too severe for a delayed reaction. Forensic Pathologist Cyril Wecht concurs with Dr. Shaw.
Seating alignment problem between Kennedy and Connally Connally would have to be seated to the left of Kennedy (on his inside) to be in the proper line of trajectory. Connally is actually directly in front of Kennedy, according to the Zapruder film. Connally admits to turning to his right after the first shot and not seeing Kennedy out of the corner of his eye. The bullet in question violates the laws of physics by moving in various directions.
Wound alignment problem between Kennedy and Connally The official autopsy states that the bullet entered base of neck and exited from the front of throat. Dallas doctors Malcolm Perry and Champ Clark testified that the throat wound was one of entry – a small bullet hole (3 x 5 millimeters) on entry that becomes larger upon exit; they were influenced to change their minds by official pressure and autopsy findings. Official autopsy doctors missed the throat wound and did not follow proper procedure to trace the wounds and to consult with Dallas doctors; they referred to the throat wound “presumably” of exit and back wound “presumably” of entry. Autopsy doctors were not qualified; they were administrators who had rarely performed autopsies – one of worst medical legal autopsies according to Wecht. Whereas the autopsy doctors located the back wound at the base of the neck, Kennedy’s bloody shirt and jacket placed the bullet hole six inches lower in the shoulder blade. The death certificate signed by Admiral Burley, Kennedy’s personal physician, confirmed the lower location. The official autopsy body chart further confirms the lower location, which was changed upon discovery of throat wound. The autopsy doctors deliberately lied rather than being innocently mistaken; falsification essential to fit the lone-gun hypothesis
Dubious status of CE 399 (magic bullet) CE 399 is the only bullet purported to be a ballistic match to Oswald’s rifle, and thus the only piece of evidence to tie Oswald to shooting. The bullet allegedly passed through Kennedy’s neck and throat and through Connally’s rib and wrist bone, but remained in near perfect condition; it was only slightly flattened, consistent with firing through water or cotton. The Warren Commission tests conducted by Dr. Joseph Dolce confirmed significant deformity when bullets were fired through goat carcasses and human cadavres; the tip of the bullets were smashed. The bullet left fragments of metal in Connally’s body; more grains were removed from Connally than were missing from the bullet; it weighed 158.6 grains out of original 161 grains – losing only about 1% of its weight. Dr. Cyril Wecht’s challenge: find another example of a bullet that behaved like CE 399, which he claims is unprecedented in ballistic history. Without CE 399, there can be no single-bullet theory; without the single- bullet theory, there can be no lone assassin.
Conclusion The single-bullet theory was the foundation of the Warren Report. The single-bullet conclusion is progressively weakened by the fallacy (untruth) of its premises, and ultimately the Warren Report’s argument collapses under the uncogence of SBT. SBT is an incredible theory based on the assumption of Oswald’s guilt rather than on evidence derived from fact, authority, and logic. The Warren Report assumes the guilt of Oswald rather than his innocence, thereby reversing the burden of proof.