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Intermediate Financial Accounting I Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures.

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Presentation on theme: "Intermediate Financial Accounting I Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Intermediate Financial Accounting I Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures

3 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures2 Objectives of the Chapter 1. Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. 2. Prepare a classified balance sheet statement. 3. Discuss the disclosures to financial statements.

4 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures3 Objectives of the Chapter (contd.) 4. Understand the accounting treatment for subsequent events. 5. Limitations of the balance sheet. 6. Use financial ratios to study financial performance of corporations.

5 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures4 Balance Sheet Statement Usefulness of the Balance Sheet: u Providing information about the financial position and the capital structure of a business entity. u Providing information about the liquidity, solvency (risk assessment), financial flexibility and operating capability of a business entity.

6 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures5 Classified Balance Sheet ( Kieso, etc. 14 th e,, illustration 5-16) Scientific Products, Inc. BALANCE SHEET December 31, 2012 Assets Current assets Cash$42,485 Available-for-sale securities--at fair value28,250 Accounts receivable$165,824 Less allow. for doub. Accts. 1,850163,974 Notes receivable23,000 Inventories -- at average cost489,713 Supplies on hand9,780 Prepaid expenses 16,252 5

7 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures6 Illustration 5-16 (Contd.) Scientific Products, Inc. BALANCE SHEET December 31, 2012 Prepaid expenses 16,252 Total current assets$773,454 Long-term investments Investments in Warren Co.87,500 Property, plant, and equipment Land--at cost125,000 Buildings--at cost975,800 Less accu. Depr.341,200634,600 Total PPE759,600 Intangible assets Goodwill 100,000 Total assets$1,720,554 6

8 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures7 Illustration 5-16 (contd.) Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity Current liabilities N/P to banks$50,000 Accounts payable197,532 Accrued int. on N/P500 Income taxes payable62,520 Accrued salaries, wages, and other liabilities9,500 Deposits received from customers 420 Total current liabilities$320,472 Long-term debt 20-year 12% debentures, due January 1, ,000 Total liabilities820,472 7

9 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures8 Illustration 5-16 (contd.) Stockholders’ equity Paid in on capital stock Preferred, 7%, cumulative Authorized, issued, and outstanding, 30,000 shares of $10 par value$300,000 Common-- Authorized, 500,000 shares of $1 par value; issued & outstanding, 400,000 shares400,000 additional paid-in capital 37,500737,500 Earnings retained in the business162,582 Total stockholders’ equity 900,082 Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,720,554 8

10 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures9 Definition of Elements of a Balance Sheet: (SFAC No. 6) n Assets n Liabilities n Stockholders’ equity

11 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures10 Assets n Resources with future economic benefit to a business entity as a result of a past transaction.

12 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures11 Assets (contd.)  Current Assets: cash and other assets that are reasonably expected to be realized in cash or sold, or consumed during a normal operating cycle or one year, whichever is longer  Examples: Cash and cash equivalents (fair value), short-term investments (fair value), receivables (estimated amount collectible), inventory (LCM), prepaid expenses…).

13 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures12 Assets (contd.)  Long-term Investments: Comprise of the following  Securities (i.e., bonds, stock, long-term notes)  Fixed assets (i.e., land, building)  Special funds (i.e., pension fund, bond sinking fund)  Nonconsolidated subsidiaries or affiliated companies (investment in Uncon Subsidiary)

14 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures13 Assets (contd.)  Property, Plant, Equipment (i.e., building, Land, Machinery and equipment, capital leases): assets used in firms’ operations and meet the following criteria: 1. Economic life > 1 year; 2. Acquired for use in operation; 3. Not for resale to customers; 4. $ is material. (materiality) Depreciation will be applied except for land.

15 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures14 Assets (contd.)  Intangible Assets: assets with no physical substance but have value based on rights or privileges that belong to the owner (i.e., goodwill, patents, franchises, trademarks,…).  Amortization for limited life intangibles (i.e., patents, franchises) and impairment test for indefinite-life intangibles (i.e., goodwill).

16 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures15 Assets (contd.)  Other Assets: Include assets sufficiently different from assets in other categories.  Examples: long-term prepayments, deferred income tax.

17 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures16 Liabilities n Legal obligations required future payments of assets or services as a result of a business entity’s past transactions or events. A. Current Liabilities B. Long-term Liabilities C. Other Liabilities

18 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures17 A. Current Liabilities n Obligations must be fulfilled in one year or one operating cycle, whichever is longer. (will require the use of current assets or the creation of current liability) (i.e., A/P, N/P, accrual payable, unearned revenue, income tax payable, current portion of L-T debt)

19 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures18 Contingencies u Contingent Liabilities u Contingent Losses u Contingent Gains

20 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures19 Contingent Liabilities n Obligations may arise because of the occurrence or not occurrence of future event(s). (i.e., warranty obligations)

21 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures20 Contingent Losses n Losses may arise because of the occurrence or not occurrence of future event(s). (i.e., the uncollectable accounts, the pending lawsuit losses, possible damage of a fire (or flood)…)

22 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures21 Contingent Gains n Gains may arise because of the occurrence or not occurrence of future events). (i.e., pending lawsuit gains)

23 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures22 Accounting Treatments of Contingencies n The accounting treatments of the contingencies depend on the occurrence probability of the related future event(s).

24 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures23 Accounting Treatments of Contingencies (contd.) n Occurrence probabilities of future event(s): (SFAS No. 5) 1. Probable: The future event(s) is(are) likely to occur. 2. Reasonably possible: The chance for the future event(s) to occur is less than probable but greater than remote. 3. Remote: The chance of the future event to occur is unlikely.

25 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures24 Accounting Treatments of Contingent Liabilities & Losses n If the future event(s) is(are) a. probable, and b. amount of loss (liability) can be estimated -- The loss (liability) should be estimated, and recognized (accrued).

26 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures25 Examples 1. B/D Exp.XXX Allowance for B/DXXX 2. Warranty Exp.XXX Estimated Warranty LiabilitiesXXX 3. Lawsuit Exp.XXX Estimated Liability under Litigation XXX

27 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures26 Accounting Treatments of Contingent Liabilities & Losses (contd.) n If the future event is probable, but the amount of loss (or liability) CANNOT be estimated, the contingent loss (or liability) should only be footnoted (not accrued).

28 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures27 Accounting Treatments of Contingent Gains n If the event is probable and the amount of contingent gains is determinable, only footnote the information. NO unrealized gain can be recognized under the current accounting standards (conservatism!).

29 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures28 B. Long-Term Liabilities n Obligations are not due in next year or next operating cycle, whichever is longer. (i.e., bonds payable, pension liability)

30 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures29 C. Other Liabilities n Long-term advances from customers, deferred income taxes.

31 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures30 Stockholders’ Equity n Residual claims (assets-liabilities) to the business entity from stockholders including: a. contributed capital b. (+ or -)Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income c. retained earnings (or - deficit) d. (-)treasury stock

32 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures31 a. Contributed Capital n Par value of common stock n Par value of prefer stock n Paid-in capital in excess of par value of common stock or preferred stock

33 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures32 b. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income n Increase of assets without outflows of assets, increase of liabilities, increase of income or issuance of common stock (i.e.,(+) increase in market value of securities-available-for-sale (+ or -), gains or losses of foreign currency adjustments, etc.)

34 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures33 c. Retained Earnings n Net income not distributed to stockholders u appropriated u unappropriated

35 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures34 Other Disclosure Issues n APB opinion No. 22 (ASC ) required the disclosure of the following information as an integral part of the financial statement (i.e., in the notes): 1. Accounting Policies: All significant accounting principles and methods such as : F depreciation method of PPE, F inventory cost flow method and valuation method (LCM), F revenue recognition principles.

36 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures35 Other Disclosure Issues 2. Contingencies. 3. Subsequent Events.

37 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures36 Subsequent Event n Significant events occurred after the fiscal year end but before the issuance date of the annual report.

38 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures37 Subsequent Event - Introduction n Investors should be informed of significant events such as mergers, acquisitions, break-ups, spin-offs, issuance of bonds, issuance of stocks, settlement of litigation, loss of plant due to flood or fire even if these events occur after the fiscal year end. As long as these events occur prior to the issuance date of the annual reports, they should be disclosed in the reports.

39 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures38 Subsequent Event - Overview n There are two types of subsequent events: 1. Events require adjustments of balance sheet statement. 2. Events do not require adjustment of balance sheet statement but require disclosure in the footnotes.

40 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures39 Events Require Adjustment of B/S n Events with evidence indicates that conditions existed at or prior to the B/ S date. n Examples: (assume FYE is 12/31/x1 and the report release date is 3/31/x2) u Bankruptcy occurred on a major client on 2/1/x2. The bankruptcy condition may exist for this client prior to 12/31/x1. u Litigation settlement on 2/10/x2. The condition for this litigation existed prior to 12/31/x1.

41 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures40 Events Do Not Require Adjustment of B/S but Require Disclosure n Examples: (assume FYE is 12/31/x1 and the report release date is 3/31/x2) u A fire occurred on a major client on 3/1/x2. u Sales of bonds on 2/9/x2. u Loss of inventories due to a fire on 1/20/x2. u Issuance of common stock on 1/30/x2.

42 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures41 SEC Regulations n Publicly traded firms need to file the 10-K reports with the SEC. Some of the SEC regulations for the 10-K reports are also followed by the firms in preparing the annual reports.

43 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures42 Example A n Comparative financial statements u B/S  2 years u I/S and cash flow statement  3 years u Selected financial data items (i.e., net sales, operating revenue EPS, total assets, cash dividends declared) should have a 5-year data.

44 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures43 Example B (MD&A) n Management Discussion and Analysis (including critical accounting estimates): Any information useful in assessing cash flows but not in the B/S (i.e. inflation impact on sales, liquidity and capital resources of the firm,…) should be included in the management discussion.

45 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures44 MD&A: Critical Accounting Estimates n The estimation of possible losses inherent in the financial receivables. n The estimation of profits over the multiple-year terms for revenue recognition on long-term project services agreements. n The estimates and assumptions needed in assessing asset impairment for investments, long-lived assets and goodwill. n Pension assumptions such as discount rate and expected rate of returns on pension assets.

46 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures45 MD&A: Contractual Obligations (required by the SEC) n The contractual obligations for future payments as of December 31, 2008 for GE are as follows: In billions Total and thereafter Borrowings (Note 18)$523.8$193.7$115.6$79.8$134.7 Int. on borrowings Operating Lease Obli Purchase Obligations Insurance Liabilities Other liabilities Contractual Obl. Of discontinued. operations 11---

47 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures46 Example C n Market Prices and Dividends of Common Stocks: u The high and low prices for each quarter in the last two years. u The dividends paid in the last two years.

48 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures47 Other Footnote Disclosures  Earnings Per Share  Inventories  Employee Stock Options  Postretirement Benefit Plans  Leases,  Investment Securities  Purchase Commitment  Bond covenants  Receivables

49 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures48 Other Footnote Disclosures (contd.)  Property, Plant and Equipment  Goodwill and other Intangible Assets  Allowance for Losses on Financial Receivables  Borrowing  Financial Instruments  Provisions for income taxes  Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

50 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures49 Other Footnote Disclosures (contd.)  Fair Value Measurements Disclosure (SFAS 157,effective 1/1/2008)  Companies report fair value for assets and liabilities must disclose the fair value hierarchy level of the fair value measurements.

51 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures50 Fair Value Hierarchy (SFAS 157)  Level 1 (most reliable) measures are based on quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.  Level 2 measures are based on quoted prices for similar instruments (assets or liabilities) in active markets.  Level 3 (least reliable ) measures are based on unobservable inputs such company’s data or assumptions.

52 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures51 Fair Value Measurements Disclosure : Footnote 28 of GE 2008 Annual Report Level 1Level 2Level 3Fin. 39 Netting Net Bal. Assets Investment Securities$1,158$27,332$12,956 ___$41,446 Derivatives ___ 18,911 1,142 (7,411) 12,642 Others ,105 ____ 1,394 total $1,159 $46,531 15,203$(7,411)$55,482 Liabilities Derivatives $ 2$12,643$ 166 $(7,575)$ 5,236 Other ____ 1,031 ____ 1,031 Total$ 2$13,674$ 166 $(7,575)$6,267

53 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures52 Limitations of the Balance Sheet 1.Historical costs reporting for most of assets and liabilities. 2.Estimations involved in the value of some assets and liabilities (i.e., the net realizable value of accounts receivable and the cost of warranty). 3.the omission of some valuable items such as goodwill of the company. 4.Off-balance sheet assets and liabilities.

54 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures53 Ratio Analysis n Ratio analysis is one of the techniques that financial analysts use to analyze the financial statements of firms. n For the purpose of analyzing financial statements, ratios can be classified into the following four categories: (see Exhibit 5-3)

55 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures54 Exhibit 5-3 Major Types of Ratios Liquidity Ratios. Measures of the enterprise’s short-term ability to pay its maturing obligations. Activity Ratios. Measures of how effectively the enterprise is using the assets employed. Profitability Ratios. Measures of the degree of success or failure of a given enterprise or division for a given period of time. (Stability Ratios.) Coverage Ratios. Measures of the degree of protection for long-term creditors and investors.

56 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures55 Exhibit 5-4 Ratio I. Liquidity 1.Current ratio 2.Quick or acid- test ratio 3.Current cash debt coverage ratio Purpose or Use Measures short-term debt-paying ability Measures immediate short-term liquidity Measures a company’s ability to pay off its current liabilities in a given year from its operations Formula Current assets Current liabilities Cash, marketable securities, and receivables (net) Current liabilities Net cash provided by operating activities Average current liabilities

57 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures56 Exhibit 5-4 (contd.) Ratio II. Activity 4.Receivable turnover 5.Inventory turnover 6.Asset turnover III. Profitability 7.Profit margin on sales Purpose or Use Measures liquidity of receivables Measures liquidity of inventory Measures how efficiently assets are used to generate sales Measures net income generated by each dollar of sales Formula Net Credit Sales Average trade receivables (net) Cost of goods sold Average inventory Net Sales Average total assets Net income Net sales 56

58 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures57 Exhibit 5-4 (contd.) Ratio III. Profitability (contd.) 8.Rate of return on assets 9.Rate of return on common stock equity 10.Earnings per share 11.Price earnings ratio Purpose or Use Measures overall profitability of assets Measures profitability of owners’ investment Measures net income earned on each share of common stock Measures the ratio of the market price per share to earnings per share Formula Net income Average total assets Net income minus preferred dividends Average common stockholders’ equity Net income minus preferred dividends Weighted shares outstanding Market price of stock Earnings per share 57

59 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures58 Exhibit 5-4 (contd.) Ratio III. Profitability (contd.) 12.Payout ratio IV. Coverage (Stability Ratios) 13.Debt to total assets 14.Time interest earned Purpose or Use Measures % of earnings distributed in the form of cash dividends Measures the % of total assets provided by creditors Measures ability to meet interest payments as they come due Formula Cash dividends Net income Total debt Total assets or equities Income before int. charges & taxes Interest charges 58

60 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures59 Exhibit 5-4 (contd.) Ratio IV. Coverage (contd.) 15.Cash debt coverage ratio 16. Book value per share Purpose or Use Measures a company’s ability to repay its total liabilities in a given year from its operations Measures the amount each share would receive if the company were liquidated at the amounts reported on the balance sheet Formula Net cash provided by operating activities Average total liabilities Common Stockholders’ equity Outstanding shares 59


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