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Chapter 4 Completing the Accounting Cycle Accounting, 21 st Edition Warren Reeve Fess PowerPoint Presentation by Douglas Cloud Professor Emeritus of Accounting.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Completing the Accounting Cycle Accounting, 21 st Edition Warren Reeve Fess PowerPoint Presentation by Douglas Cloud Professor Emeritus of Accounting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Completing the Accounting Cycle Accounting, 21 st Edition Warren Reeve Fess PowerPoint Presentation by Douglas Cloud Professor Emeritus of Accounting Pepperdine University © Copyright 2004 South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Task Force Image Gallery clip art included in this electronic presentation is used with the permission of NVTech Inc.

2 Some of the action has been automated, so click the mouse when you see this lightning bolt in the lower right-hand corner of the screen. You can point and click anywhere on the screen.

3 1.Review the seven basic steps of the accounting cycle. 2.Prepare a work sheet. 3.Prepare financial statements from a work sheet. 4.Prepare adjusting and closing entries from a work sheet. 5.Explain what is meant by the fiscal year and the natural business year. 6.Analyze and interpret the financial solvency of a business by computing working capital and the current ratio. ObjectivesObjectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

4 Seven Basic Steps of the Accounting Cycle 1.Transactions are analyzed and recorded in the journal. 2.Transactions are posted to the ledger. 3.A trial balance is prepared, adjustment data are assembled, and an optional work sheet is completed. 4.Financial statements are prepared. 5.Adjusting entries are journalized and posted. 6.Closing entries are journalized and posted. 7.A post-closing trial balance is prepared.

5 Assets are commonly divided into classes and that two of these classes are current assets and property, plant, and equipment.

6 That’s correct. Cash and other assets that are expected to be converted into cash, sold, or used up usually in less than a year are current assets.

7 For example? Well… besides cash, there’s notes receivable, accounts receivable, supplies, and other prepaid items.

8 So, assets that have a life over a year are listed under property, plant, and equipment. There are some exceptions, but that’s basically correct. Assets such as office equipment, machinery, buildings, and land would appear under that heading.

9 Liabilities due usually within one year or less and that are to be paid out of current assets are called current liabilities.  Accounts payable  Wages payable  Interest payable  Unearned fees

10 Liabilities not due for more than a year usually are long-term liabilities. Mortgage note payable Mortgage payable Bond payable

11 The work sheet is a useful device for understanding the flow of accounting data from the unadjusted trial balance to the financial statements.

12 The Work Sheet Trial Balance AccountsDrCrDrCrDrCr AdjustmentsAdjusted TB Prepared from the general ledger. Accounts are listed in the following order: assets, liabilities, owner’s equity, revenues, and expenses.

13 Adjustments are entered here. Two possibilities: 1. Deferrals – Existing balances are changed. 2. Accruals – New information is entered. Adjustments are entered here. Two possibilities: 1. Deferrals – Existing balances are changed. 2. Accruals – New information is entered. Trial Balance AccountsDrCrDrCrDrCr AdjustmentsAdjusted TB The Work Sheet

14 Adjustments are combined with the trial balance. Account balances are now adjusted. Trial Balance AccountsDrCrDrCrDrCr AdjustmentsAdjusted TB

15 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220 Supplies2,000 Prepaid Insurance2,400 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340 Wages Expense4,275 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance NetSolutions Work Sheet For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 The Unadjusted Trial Balance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

16 (a) The Supplies account has a debit of $2,000. A count of supplies at the end of the period reveals that $760 is on hand. Therefore, $1,240 in supplies was used during the two-month period.

17 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220 Supplies2,000 Prepaid Insurance2,400 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340 Wages Expense4,275 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance NetSolutions Work Sheet For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 (a) 1,240

18 (b)The Prepaid Insurance account has a debit balance of $2,400, which represents prepayment of insurance for 24 months beginning December 1. Thus, the insurance expense for this month is $100 ($2,400 ÷ 24).

19 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240 Prepaid Insurance2,400 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340 Wages Expense4,275 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,240 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance NetSolutions Work Sheet For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Insurance Expense(b) 100 Accounts are added as needed. (b) 100

20 (c) The Unearned Rent account has a credit balance of $360, which represents the receipt of three-months’ rent beginning with December 1. Thus, the rent revenue for December is $120. FOR RENT

21 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240 Prepaid Insurance2,400(b) 100 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340 Wages Expense4,275 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,240 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance NetSolutions Work Sheet For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Insurance Expense(b) 100 (c) 120 Rent Revenue(c) 120

22 (d) Wages accrued but not paid at the end of December total $250.

23 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240 Prepaid Insurance2,400(b) 100 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360(c) 120 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340 Wages Expense4,275 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,240 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance NetSolutions Work Sheet For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Insurance Expense(b) 100 Rent Revenue (c) 120 Wages Payable(d) 250 (d) 250

24 (e) Fees accrued at the end of December, but not recorded, total $500.

25 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240 Prepaid Insurance2,400(b) 100 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360(c) 120 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340 Wages Expense4,275(d) 250 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,240 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance NetSolutions Work Sheet For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Insurance Expense(b) 100 Rent Revenue (c) 120 Wages Payable(d) 250 (e) 500

26 (f) Depreciation of the office equipment is $50 for December.

27 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220(e) 500 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240 Prepaid Insurance2,400(b) 100 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360(c) 120 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340(e) 500 Wages Expense4,275(d) 250 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,240 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance NetSolutions Work Sheet For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Insurance Expense(b) 100 Rent Revenue (c) 120 Wages Payable(d) 250 Depreciation Expense(f) 50 Accum. Depreciation(f) 50

28 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220(e) 500 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240 Prepaid Insurance2,400(b) 100 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360(c) 120 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340(e) 500 Wages Expense4,275(d) 250 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,240 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance NetSolutions Work Sheet For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Insurance Expense(b) 100 Rent Revenue (c) 120 Wages Payable(d) 250 Depreciation Expense(f) 50 Accum. Depreciation(f) 50 To make more space, let’s remove the heading.

29 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220(e) 500 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240 Prepaid Insurance2,400(b) 100 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360(c) 120 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340(e) 500 Wages Expense4,275(d) 250 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,240 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Insurance Expense(b) 100 Rent Revenue (c) 120 Wages Payable(d) 250 Depreciation Expense(f) 50 Accum. Depreciation(f) 502,260 Summed and ruled 31

30 Next, the unadjusted Trial Balance columns and the Adjustments columns are combined to determine the amounts displayed in the Adjusted Trial Balance.

31 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,220(e) 500 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240 Prepaid Insurance2,400(b) 100 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent360(c) 120 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,340(e) 500 Wages Expense4,275(d) 250 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,240 Miscellaneous Expense45542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Insurance Expense(b) 100 Rent Revenue (c) 120 Wages Payable(d) 250 Depreciation Expense(f) 50 Accum. Depreciation(f) 502,260 33

32 Cash2,0652,065 Accounts Receivable2,220(e) 5002,720 Supplies2,000(a) 1,240760 Prepaid Insurance2,400(b) 1002,300 Land20,00020,000 Office Equipment1,8001,800 Accounts Payable900900 Unearned Rent360(c) 120240 Chris Clark, Capital25,00025,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,0004,000 Fees Earned16,340(e) 50016,840 Wages Expense4,275(d) 2504,525 Rent Expense1,6001,600 Utilities Expense985985 Supplies Expense800(a) 1,2402,040 Miscellaneous Expense45545542,600 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments Trial Balance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Insurance Expense(b) 100 100 Rent Revenue (c) 120120 Wages Payable(d) 250250 Depreciation Expense(f) 5050 Accum. Depreciation(f) 5050 2,2602,26043,40043,400 34

33 Revenue and expense balances in the Adjusted Trial Balance column are extended to the Income Statement column. Adjusted TB AccountsDrCrDrCrDrCr Income State.Balance Sheet The Work Sheet

34 Asset, liability, owner’s equity, and drawing balances in the Adjusted Trial Balance column are extended to the Balance Sheet column. Adjusted TB AccountsDrCrDrCrDrCr Income State.Balance Sheet The Work Sheet

35 To make room on the slides for the Income statement and Balance Sheet columns, the Trial Balance and Adjustments columns have been removed.

36 Cash2,065 Accounts Receivable2,720 Supplies760 Prepaid Insurance2,300 Land20,000 Office Equipment1,800 Accounts Payable900 Unearned Rent240 Chris Clark, Capital25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,000 Fees Earned16,840 Wages Expense4,525 Rent Expense1,600 Utilities Expense985 Supplies Expense2,040 Miscellaneous Expense455 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Income Statement Balance Sheet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Insurance Expense100 Rent Revenue 120 Wages Payable250 Depreciation Expense50 Accum. Depreciation50 43,40043,400 38

37 Now, let’s extend the balances from the Adjusted Trial Balance column.

38 Cash2,0652,065 Accounts Receivable2,7202,720 Supplies760760 Prepaid Insurance2,3002,300 Land20,00020,000 Office Equipment1,8001,800 Accounts Payable900900 Unearned Rent240240 Chris Clark, Capital25,00025,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,0004,000 Fees Earned16,84016,840 Wages Expense4,5254,525 Rent Expense1,6001,600 Utilities Expense985985 Supplies Expense2,0402,040 Miscellaneous Expense455455 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Income Statement Balance Sheet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Insurance Expense100100 Rent Revenue 120120 Wages Payable250250 Depreciation Expense5050 Accum. Depreciation5050 43,40043,400 40

39 These four columns are summed.

40 Cash2,0652,065 Accounts Receivable2,7202,720 Supplies760760 Prepaid Insurance2,3002,300 Land20,00020,000 Office Equipment1,8001,800 Accounts Payable900900 Unearned Rent240240 Chris Clark, Capital25,00025,000 Chris Clark, Drawing4,0004,000 Fees Earned16,84016,840 Wages Expense4,5254,525 Rent Expense1,6001,600 Utilities Expense985985 Supplies Expense2,0402,040 Miscellaneous Expense455455 Account TitleDebitCreditDebitCreditDebitCredit Adjusted Trial Balance Income Statement Balance Sheet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Insurance Expense100100 Rent Revenue 120120 Wages Payable250250 Depreciation Expense5050 Accum. Depreciation5050 43,40043,4009,75516,96033,64526,440 42

41 The difference between the Income Statement column totals is the net income (or net loss) for the period.

42 The difference between the Balance Sheet column totals is also the income (or net loss) for the period.

43 9,75516,96033,64526,4407,205 16,96016,96033,64533,645 Income Statement Balance Sheet Net Income

44 NetSolutions Income Statement For Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 Fees earned$16,840 Rent revenue120 Total revenues$16,960 Expenses: Wages expense$ 4,525 Supplies expense2,040 Rent expense1,600 Utilities expense985 Insurance expense100 Depreciation expense50 Miscellaneous expense455 Total expenses 9,755 Net income $ 7,205 Every amount on this income statement was taken from the Income Statement column of the work sheet.

45 NetSolutions Statement of Owner’s Equity For the Two Months Ended December 31, 2005 Chris Clark, Capital, November 1, 2005$ 0 Investment on November 1, 2005$25,000 Net income for November and December 7,205 $32,205 Less withdrawals 4,000 Increase in owner’s equity28,205 Chris Clark, Capital, December 31, 2005$28,205 Either from the income statement or the work sheet. From the Balance Sheet debit column of the work sheet.

46 NetSolutions Balance Sheet December 31, 2005 Assets Liabilities Current assets: Current liabilities: Cash$ 2,065Accounts payable$900 Accounts receivable2,720Wages payable250 Supplies 760Unearned rent240 Prepaid insurance 2,300Total liabilities$ 1,390 Total current assets$ 7,845 Property, plant, and equipment: Land$20,000 Office equip.$1,800 Less accum. depreciation 50 1,750 Owner’s Equity Total property, plant Chris Clark, Capital 28,205 and equipment 21,750Total liabilities and Total assets$29,595owner’s equity$29,595 Assets Liabilities Current assets: Current liabilities: Cash$ 2,065Accounts payable$900 Accounts receivable2,720Wages payable250 Supplies 760Unearned rent240 Prepaid insurance 2,300Total liabilities$ 1,390 Total current assets$ 7,845 Property, plant, and equipment: Land$20,000 Office equip.$1,800 Less accum. depreciation 50 1,750 Owner’s Equity Total property, plant Chris Clark, Capital 28,205 and equipment 21,750Total liabilities and Total assets$29,595owner’s equity$29,595 From the Statement of Owner’s Equity

47 Adjusting and Closing Entries Adjusting entries are recorded in the journal at the end of the accounting period.

48 Adjusting and Closing Entries If a work sheet has been prepared, the data for these entries are in the Adjustments columns.

49 OWNER’S CAPITAL The Closing Process Income Summary 1 Revenues are transferred to Income Summary2 Expenses are transferred to Income Summary 3 Net Income or Net Loss is transferred to Owner’s Capital 4 Drawings are transferred to Owner’s Capital

50 OWNER’S CAPITAL Income Summary 1 Revenues are transferred to Income Summary2 Expenses are transferred to Income Summary 3 Net Income or Net Loss is transferred to Owner’s Capital 4 Drawings are transferred to Owner’s Capital The Income Summary account does not appear on the financial statements. Adjusting and Closing Entries

51 Wages Expense Bal.4,525 Rent Expense Bal.1,600 Depreciation Expense Bal.50 Utilities Expense Bal.985 Supplies Expense Bal.2,040 Insurance Expense Bal.100 Miscellaneous Expense Bal.455 Fees Earned Bal.16,840 Rent Revenue Bal.120 Chris Clark, Capital Bal.25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing Bal.4,000 Income Summary Note: The balances shown are adjusted balances before closing. The following sequence demonstrates the closing process. The Closing Process

52 Wages Expense Bal.4,525 Rent Expense Bal.1,600 Depreciation Expense Bal.50 Utilities Expense Bal.985 Supplies Expense Bal.2,040 Insurance Expense Bal.100 Miscellaneous Expense Bal.455 Fees Earned Bal.16,840 Rent Revenue Bal.120 Chris Clark, Capital Bal.25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing Bal.4,000 Income Summary Debit each revenue account for the amount of its balance, and credit Income Summary for the total revenue. 16,840 120 16,960 The Closing Process

53 Wages Expense Bal.4,525 Rent Expense Bal.1,600 Depreciation Expense Bal.50 Utilities Expense Bal.985 Supplies Expense Bal.2,040 Insurance Expense Bal.100 Miscellaneous Expense Bal.455 Chris Clark, Capital Bal.25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing Bal.4,000 Income Summary Debit Income Summary for the total expenses and credit each expense account for its balance. Fees Earned Bal.16,840 Rent Revenue Bal.120 16,840 120 16,9609,775 455 100 2,040 985 50 1,600 4,525 The Closing Process

54 Wages Expense Bal.4,525 Rent Expense Bal.1,600 Depreciation Expense Bal.50 Utilities Expense Bal.985 Supplies Expense Bal.2,040 Insurance Expense Bal.100 Miscellaneous Expense Bal.455 Chris Clark, Capital Bal.25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing Bal.4,000 Income Summary Debit Income Summary for the amount of its balance (in this case, the net income) and credit the capital account. Fees Earned Bal.16,840 Rent Revenue Bal.120 16,840 120 16,9609,775 455 100 2,040 985 50 1,600 4,525 7,205 The Closing Process

55 Wages Expense Bal.4,525 Rent Expense Bal.1,600 Depreciation Expense Bal.50 Utilities Expense Bal.985 Supplies Expense Bal.2,040 Insurance Expense Bal.100 Miscellaneous Expense Bal.455 Chris Clark, Capital Bal.25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing Bal.4,000 Income Summary Debit the capital account for the balance of the drawing account, and credit drawing for the same amount. Fees Earned Bal.16,840 Rent Revenue Bal.120 16,840 120 16,9609,775 455 100 2,040 985 50 1,600 4,525 7,205 4,000 The Closing Process

56 Wages Expense Bal.4,525 Rent Expense Bal.1,600 Depreciation Expense Bal.50 Utilities Expense Bal.985 Supplies Expense Bal.2,040 Insurance Expense Bal.100 Miscellaneous Expense Bal.455 Chris Clark, Capital Bal.25,000 Chris Clark, Drawing Bal.4,000 Income Summary Fees Earned Bal.16,840 Rent Revenue Bal.120 16,480 120 16,9609,775 445 100 2,040 985 50 1,600 4,525 7,205 4,000 Close Revenues Close Revenues Close Expenses Close Expenses Close Income Summary Close Income Summary Close Drawing Close Drawing 16,840 16,840 120 120 16,960 16,960 4,525 4,525 1,600 1,600 50 50 985 985 2,040 2,040 100 100 455 455 9,775 9,775 7,205 7,205 4,000 4,000 Review of the Closing Process

57 After the closing entries are posted, all of the temporary accounts have zero balances.

58 Post-closing Trial Balance NetSolutions Post-Closing Trial Balance December 31, 2005 Cash2 065 00 Accounts Receivable2 720 00 Supplies760 00 Prepaid Insurance2 300 00 Land20 000 00 Office Equipment1 800 00 Accumulated Depreciation50 00 Accounts Payable900 00 Wages Payable250 00 Unearned Rent240 00 Chris Clark, Capital28 205 0029 645 00

59 Financial Analysis for NetSolutions Working Capital = $7,845 –$1,390 Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities Working Capital = $6,455

60 Current Ratio = Current Assets ÷ Current Liabilities Financial Analysis for NetSolutions Current Ratio = $7,845 ÷ $1,390 Current Ratio = 5.6

61 Financial Analysis for NetSolutions This ratio implies that NetSolutions is able to pay its current liabilities.

62 Financial Analysis for NetSolutions Current ratio = $7,845 ÷$1,390 Current ratio = Current Assets ÷ Current Liabilities Current ratio = 5.6

63 Financial Analysis for NetSolutions NetSolutions can use the current ratio to make comparisons across companies and with industry averages.

64 The End Chapter 4


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