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Civil War Effects on Role and Power of USG Federal power wins – defeat for states rights in short-term. Federal power wins – defeat for states rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil War Effects on Role and Power of USG Federal power wins – defeat for states rights in short-term. Federal power wins – defeat for states rights."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Civil War Effects on Role and Power of USG Federal power wins – defeat for states rights in short-term. Federal power wins – defeat for states rights in short-term. Expansion of presidential power Expansion of presidential power Lincoln and Constitution Lincoln and Constitution Commander-in-Chief Commander-in-Chief Expansion of congressional power Expansion of congressional power Congressional Reconstruction Congressional Reconstruction Amendments Amendments Federal programs in and military occupation of South Federal programs in and military occupation of South ln-abraham.jpg

3 Civil War Effects on Role and Power of USG End of Reconstruction: States Rights! End of Reconstruction: States Rights! 1876 election 1876 election Autonomy for South Autonomy for South Jim Crow segregation Jim Crow segregation Focus turns to economic expansion Focus turns to economic expansion Government is pro-big business Government is pro-big business Subsidies Subsidies Tariffs Tariffs Anti-Labor Anti-Labor

4 Late 1800s Government is still small Government is still small Government is pro-big business Government is pro-big business Partly economic policy; partly election politics Partly economic policy; partly election politics Increasing problems and inequities from industrialization Increasing problems and inequities from industrialization ey/american/tenements.jpg

5 “Government of the people, by the people, for the people…” - Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address From Progressivism to the Warren Court

6 Progressivism People control the government People control the government Economic opportunities for all Economic opportunities for all Correct injustices in society Correct injustices in society Response to the problems of the Gilded Age: Response to the problems of the Gilded Age: Monopolies Monopolies Exploitation of labor Exploitation of labor Government helping big business, not the people Government helping big business, not the people Unsafe living and working conditions Unsafe living and working conditions Rapid urbanization Rapid urbanization Exploitation of natural resources Exploitation of natural resources Political machines and corruption (Tammany Hall/Boss Tweed) Political machines and corruption (Tammany Hall/Boss Tweed)

7 Causes Muckrakers Muckrakers Upton Sinclair, Jacob Riis Upton Sinclair, Jacob Riis Politicians Politicians Robert LaFollette Robert LaFollette Teddy Roosevelt Teddy Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson Activists Activists Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Jane Addams, Florence Kelly Jane Addams, Florence Kelly John Muir, Gifford Pinchot John Muir, Gifford Pinchot

8 Results Labor reform Labor reform Anti-Trust legislation Anti-Trust legislation Regulation of railroad Regulation of railroad Pure Food and Drug Act Pure Food and Drug Act Women’s suffrage Women’s suffrage Direct election of U.S. Senators Direct election of U.S. Senators Graduated income tax Graduated income tax Federal Reserve System Federal Reserve System Federal Trade Commission Federal Trade Commission Prohibition Prohibition National parks and National Forest Service National parks and National Forest Service Initiative, referendum, recall Initiative, referendum, recall Ended by WWI Ended by WWI

9 Laissez Faire Government 1920s – “Return to Normalcy” 1920s – “Return to Normalcy” Reaction to Progressivism and WW I Reaction to Progressivism and WW I High Tariffs High Tariffs Limits on Immigration Limits on Immigration

10 The New Deal President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s program in response to the Great Depression President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s program in response to the Great Depression Goals: Goals: Slow and reverse economic collapse Slow and reverse economic collapse Restore faith in stock market and banking Restore faith in stock market and banking Create jobs Create jobs Provide a social safety net for the poor, elderly, sick Provide a social safety net for the poor, elderly, sick Stabilize the farming industry Stabilize the farming industry

11 FDR and the New Deal Programs Fireside Chats and the New Deal Coalition Fireside Chats and the New Deal Coalition Glass-Steagall Banking Act of 1933 Glass-Steagall Banking Act of 1933 FDIC FDIC Federal Securities Act Federal Securities Act SEC SEC Agricultural Adjustment Act Agricultural Adjustment Act Civilian Conservation Corps Civilian Conservation Corps National Industrial Recovery Act National Industrial Recovery Act TVA TVA Works Progress Administration Works Progress Administration Wagner Act Wagner Act Social Security Act Social Security Act

12 Results of the New Deal The slide slows and stops, but the Depression does not end until WWII! The slide slows and stops, but the Depression does not end until WWII! Federal government aggressively intervenes to address crisis, dramatically expands size and scope of federal government. Federal government aggressively intervenes to address crisis, dramatically expands size and scope of federal government. Federal government supports rights of labor. Federal government supports rights of labor. Federal social safety net created – blend of socialism and market economy. Federal social safety net created – blend of socialism and market economy. FDR elected to unprecedented third term – and will be elected for a fourth time, during WWII. FDR elected to unprecedented third term – and will be elected for a fourth time, during WWII.

13 The Warren Court A liberal, “activist” court under the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren. A liberal, “activist” court under the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren. Expanded the protection of individual rights under the Constitution. Expanded the protection of individual rights under the Constitution.

14 The Warren Court Brown V, Board of Education, Topeka Kansas Civil Rights Brown V, Board of Education, Topeka Kansas Civil Rights Warren claimed that "in the eyes of the law, justice was color-blind." Warren claimed that "in the eyes of the law, justice was color-blind." Separate was found to be inherently unequal. Separate was found to be inherently unequal. In ruling in favor of Brown the court ordered the integration of America "with all deliberate speed." In ruling in favor of Brown the court ordered the integration of America "with all deliberate speed." Mapp v Ohio Search and Seizure Mapp v Ohio Search and Seizure Evidence obtained in the search was inadmissable because it was seized in an illegal search. Evidence obtained in the search was inadmissable because it was seized in an illegal search. The court created the "exclusionary rule" which makes illegally obtained evidence inadmissable in court. This ruling upheld the principles of the fourth amendment. The court created the "exclusionary rule" which makes illegally obtained evidence inadmissable in court. This ruling upheld the principles of the fourth amendment.

15 The Warren Court Gideon v. Wainright Right To Counsel Gideon v. Wainright Right To Counsel All citizens must be provided a lawyer if they cannot afford one. This is regardless of the type of crime. All citizens must be provided a lawyer if they cannot afford one. This is regardless of the type of crime. Escobedo v Illinois Right To Counsel Escobedo v Illinois Right To Counsel Extended the "exclusionary rule" to illegal confessions. Extended the "exclusionary rule" to illegal confessions. Also defined the "Escobedo Rule" which holds that individuals have the right to an attorney when an "investigation is no longer a general inquiry...but has begun to focus on a particular suspect..." Also defined the "Escobedo Rule" which holds that individuals have the right to an attorney when an "investigation is no longer a general inquiry...but has begun to focus on a particular suspect..." The ruling went on to detail that “(Where) the suspect has been taken into custody...the suspect has requested...his lawyer, and the police have not...warned him of his right to remain silent, the accused has been denied...counsel in violation of the Sixth Amendment." The ruling went on to detail that “(Where) the suspect has been taken into custody...the suspect has requested...his lawyer, and the police have not...warned him of his right to remain silent, the accused has been denied...counsel in violation of the Sixth Amendment."

16 The Warren Court Miranda v Arizona Rights of the Accused Miranda v Arizona Rights of the Accused Ruled that citizens must be informed of their rights prior to questioning. Any evidence or statement obtained prior to a suspect being read his/her rights is inadmissable. Ruled that citizens must be informed of their rights prior to questioning. Any evidence or statement obtained prior to a suspect being read his/her rights is inadmissable. Led to what is commonly referred to as one's "Miranda Rights" having to be read upon questioning or arrest. They are: "You have the right to remain silent, anything you say can, and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford one, one will be appointed for you." Led to what is commonly referred to as one's "Miranda Rights" having to be read upon questioning or arrest. They are: "You have the right to remain silent, anything you say can, and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford one, one will be appointed for you." Engle v Vitale Separation of Church and State Engle v Vitale Separation of Church and State In the late 1950's the New York State Board of Regents wrote and adopted a prayer which was supposed to be nondenominational. The board recommended that the prayer be said by students in public schools on a voluntary basis every morning. In the late 1950's the New York State Board of Regents wrote and adopted a prayer which was supposed to be nondenominational. The board recommended that the prayer be said by students in public schools on a voluntary basis every morning. The court ruled against the school district and upheld the establishment clause of the first amendment. Prayer in schools was to be considered unconstitutional. The court ruled against the school district and upheld the establishment clause of the first amendment. Prayer in schools was to be considered unconstitutional.

17 The Warren Court Tinker v Des Moines Symbolic Speech Tinker v Des Moines Symbolic Speech Several students and parents in Des Moines organized a protest of the Vietnam war. Students were to wear black arm bands to school in protest. When the school found out they warned all the students and parents that anyone wearing the armbands would be would be suspended. The Tinker children wore their armbands to school (they were the only ones of the group to do so) and were suspended. Several students and parents in Des Moines organized a protest of the Vietnam war. Students were to wear black arm bands to school in protest. When the school found out they warned all the students and parents that anyone wearing the armbands would be would be suspended. The Tinker children wore their armbands to school (they were the only ones of the group to do so) and were suspended. Mr. and Mrs. Tinker filed suit claiming that the school violated the children's right to freedom of speech and expression. The school claimed that the armbands were disruptive. Mr. and Mrs. Tinker filed suit claiming that the school violated the children's right to freedom of speech and expression. The school claimed that the armbands were disruptive. The court ruled against the school district saying that "students do not shed their constitutional rights at the school house gates. In doing so the court protected what has come to be known as "symbolic speech.“ The court ruled against the school district saying that "students do not shed their constitutional rights at the school house gates. In doing so the court protected what has come to be known as "symbolic speech.“ Warren Court information adapted from:

18 Image Citations if if if if px-8.gif 200-px-8.gif 200-px-8.gif 200-px-8.gif %3A%2F%2Fwww.nisk.k12.ny.us%2Ffdr%2F %3A%2F%2Fwww.nisk.k12.ny.us%2Ffdr%2F %3A%2F%2Fwww.nisk.k12.ny.us%2Ffdr%2F %3A%2F%2Fwww.nisk.k12.ny.us%2Ffdr%2F palmermuseum/past/wpa/wpa.html palmermuseum/past/wpa/wpa.html palmermuseum/past/wpa/wpa.html palmermuseum/past/wpa/wpa.html lynn.boston-baden.com/ lvb/tc/dep.htm lynn.boston-baden.com/ lvb/tc/dep.htm lynn.boston-baden.com/ lvb/tc/dep.htm lynn.boston-baden.com/ lvb/tc/dep.htm


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