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Chapter 18 Introduction to Managerial Accounting and Job Order Cost Systems Accounting, 21 st Edition Warren Reeve Fess PowerPoint Presentation by Douglas.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Introduction to Managerial Accounting and Job Order Cost Systems Accounting, 21 st Edition Warren Reeve Fess PowerPoint Presentation by Douglas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Introduction to Managerial Accounting and Job Order Cost Systems Accounting, 21 st Edition Warren Reeve Fess PowerPoint Presentation by Douglas Cloud Professor Emeritus of Accounting Pepperdine University © Copyright 2004 South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Task Force Image Gallery clip art included in this electronic presentation is used with the permission of NVTech Inc.

2 Some of the action has been automated, so click the mouse when you see this lightning bolt in the lower right-hand corner of the screen. You can point and click anywhere on the screen.

3 1.Describe the differences between managerial and financial accounting. 2.Evaluate the organizational role of management accountants. 3.Define and illustrate materials, factory labor, and factory overhead costs. 4.Describe accounting systems used by manufacturing businesses. ObjectivesObjectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

4 6.Describe and prepare summary journal entries for a job order cost accounting system. ObjectivesObjectives 7.Use job order cost information for decision making. 8.Diagram the flow of costs for a service business that uses a job order cost accounting system.

5 The Differences Between Managerial and Financial Accounting

6 Financial Accounting Managerial Accounting Shareholders Creditors Government General Public Management Shareholders Creditors Government General Public ManagementManagementManagement Users of Accounting Information Financial and Managerial Accounting

7 Financial Statements Users: Objective Prepared according to GAAP Prepared periodically Business entity External Users and Management Characteristics: Financial Accounting

8 Management Reports Users: Objective and subjective Prepared according to management needs Prepared periodically or as needed Prepared periodically or as needed Business entity or segment Management Characteristics: Managerial Accounting

9 Plant Manager-- Carlsbad, CA Plant Manager——Pro Tour Relations Controller Manager—Shaft Development Partial Organization Chart – Callaway Golf Company Vice-President New Product Development Vice-President New Product Development Vice-President— Global Sales Vice-President— Manufacturing Chief Financial Officer Chief Executive Officer Chief Executive Officer

10 Manufacturing Cost Terms

11 EXPENSE ASSET EXPENSE COST Payroll Check

12 FactoryOverheadFactoryOverhead Direct Materials Direct Materials DirectLaborDirectLabor ProductCostsProductCosts The cost of materials that are an integral part of the product. The cost of labor directly involved in converting material into the product. Manufacturing costs other than direct materials and direct labor.

13 Cost Accounting Systems Job order cost system Provides a separate record for the cost of each quantity of product that passes through the factory. Process cost system System in which costs are accumulated for each of the departments or processes within the factory. *Note that the examples in this presentation use the job order cost accounting system.

14 The costs of converting the materials into finished products consists of direct labor and factory overhead. These two costs combined are often referred to as conversion costs.

15 Flow of Manufacturing Costs PRINTING PLANT Job 73 Work in Process Inventory Direct Labor Factory Overhead MATERIALS STOREROOM INK Materials Inventory

16 Flow of Manufacturing Costs Finished Goods Inventory WAREHOUSE Job 69 Job 70 CAMPUS BOOKSTORE Cost of Goods Sold

17 Flow of Manufacturing Costs Materials received are inspected by the Receiving Department. Once inspected, a receiving report is prepared showing the quantity received and its condition. Receiving Report No. 196 Receiving Report No. 196

18 Flow of Manufacturing Costs Invoice The receiving report and the invoice are used to record the receipt of the merchandise and to control the payment. Receiving Report No. 196 Receiving Report No. 196

19 Flow of Manufacturing Costs Invoice a. Materials Accounts Payable Materials purchased during December. Receiving Report No. 196 Receiving Report No. 196

20 Flow of Manufacturing Costs The Materials account is a controlling account. A separate account for each type of material is maintained in a subsidiary materials ledger. Invoice Receiving Report No. 196 Receiving Report No. 196

21 MATERIALS LEDGER ACCOUNT MATERIAL: No. 23 PaperORDER POINT: 1,000 lbs. RECEIVED ISSUED BALANCE Rec. Mat. Report Req. Unit No. Quantity Amount No. Quantity Amount Date Quantity Amount Price Dec. 11,200$ 6,000$ $ 2, , Receiving Report No. 196 Receiving Report No ,500$10, , ,50010, First-in, first-out Direct Materials

22 MATERIALS LEDGER ACCOUNT MATERIAL: No. 23 PaperORDER POINT: 1,000 lbs. RECEIVED ISSUED BALANCE Rec. Mat. Report Req. Unit No. Quantity Amount No. Quantity Amount Date Quantity Amount Price Dec. 11,200$ 6,000$ $ 2, , ,500$10, , ,50010, Later, Materials Requisition Number 704 is prepared for Job No. 72 requisitioning 1,800 units of No. 23 paper. to Materials Requisition Direct Materials 7041,80011, ,

23 MATERIALS REQUISITIONS REQUISITION NO. 704 JOB NO. 72 Quantity Unit Description Issued Price Amount No. 23 paper800$5.00$ 4,000 1, ,000 Total issued$11,000 from Materials Ledger Account to Job Cost Sheet Direct Materials

24 Job 72 4,000 units of Algebra Direct materials Direct Labor Factory Overhead from Materials Requisition $11,000 The receiving report and the invoice are used to record the receipt of the merchandise and to control the payment. b. Work in Process Materials Materials requisitioned to Job 72. Direct Materials

25 Direct Labor TIME TICKET Job 72 Time Tickets No Employee Name S. Andrews Date Dec. 26, 2006 Work Description Printing Job No. 72 Start Finish Hours Hourly Time Time Worked Rate Cost 9:0012:003$15.00$ :006: Total Cost$ Approved by _____________________________ A. M. December Job 72 (500 hours) for a total cost of $7,500 to Job Cost Sheet

26 Direct Labor Job 72 4,000 units of Algebra Direct materials$11,000 Direct Labor Factory Overhead from Time Tickets 7,500 The receiving report and the invoice are used to record the receipt of the merchandise and to control the payment. c. Work in Process Wages Payable Factory labor used in production of Job 72.

27 When indirect material is used or depreciation of factory equipment is recorded, a cost account (rather than an expense account) needs to be charged. All manufacturing costs except direct materials and direct labor fall into this category. d. Factory Overhead Factory overhead incurred. Materials Wages Payable Utilities Payable Accumulated Depreciation Factory Overhead

28 A firm can’t wait until the end of the fiscal year to price a product, so overhead must be estimated (or applied) using this formula. Estimated total factory overhead costs Estimated activity base Predetermined factory overhead rate = Factory Overhead

29 An activity base is chosen for the denominator of the formula that is relevant to overhead and can be realistically measured. There are several possibilities for Goodwell Printers. Activity base possibilities Activity base possibilities 1. Direct labor hours 2. Direct labor dollars 3. Machine hours 4. Direct materials Factory Overhead

30 Goodwell Printers estimates factory overhead costs to be $50,000 and chooses direct labor hours as its activity base. Factory Overhead

31 Management estimated that 10,000 direct labor hours would be used during the fiscal period. This allowed for a predetermined factory overhead rate to be calculated. Estimated total factory overhead costs Estimated direct labor hours $50,000 10,000 direct labor hours = $5 per direct labor hours Factory Overhead

32 December Job 72 (500 hours) for a total cost of $7,500 TIME TICKET Job 72 Time Tickets No Employee Name B. Andrews Date Dec. 26, 2006 Work Description Printing Job No. 72 Start Finish Hours Hourly Time Time Worked Rate Cost 9:0012:003$15.00$ :006: Total Cost$ Approved by _____________________________ A. M. Job 72 required 500 direct labor hours. Factory Overhead

33 Job 72 4,000 units of Algebra Direct materials Direct Labor Factory Overhead 500 hours x $5 $11,000 7,500 The receiving report and the invoice are used to record the receipt of the merchandise and to control the payment. d. Work in Process Factory Overhead Factory overhead applied to Job 72. 2,500 Total job cost$21,000 Factory Overhead

34 This illustrations has focused on Job 72. The textbook shows two jobs that were worked on in December. So, when overhead is applied to both jobs, the entry is for $4,250. ACCOUNT Factory Overhead ACCOUNT NO. Date Item Ref. Debit Credit Debit Credit Post. Balance Dec. 1Balance200 31FO cost incurred4,6004,400 31FO cost applied4, Factory Overhead

35 Overapplied (overestimated) Underapplied (underestimated) Factory Overhead requires closing at the end of the fiscal period. Date Item Ref. Debit Credit Debit Credit Post. Balance Dec. 1Balance200 31FO cost incurred4,6004,400 31FO cost applied4, ACCOUNT Factory Overhead ACCOUNT NO. Factory Overhead

36 Disposal of Factory Overhead Balance Date Item Ref. Debit Credit Debit Credit Post. Balance Dec. 1Balance200 31FO cost incurred4,6004,400 31FO cost applied4, ACCOUNT Factory Overhead ACCOUNT NO. The receiving report and the invoice are used to record the receipt of the merchandise and to control the payment. f. Cost of Goods Sold Factory Overhead Closed underapplied factory overhead to cost of goods sold.

37 ACCOUNT Factory Overhead ACCOUNT NO. Date Item Ref. Debit Credit Debit Credit Post. Balance Dec. 1Balance200 31FO cost incurred4,6004,400 31FO cost applied4, Closing150— Disposal of Factory Overhead Balance

38 Completion of Jobs The receiving report and the invoice are used to record the receipt of the merchandise and to control the payment. g. Finished Goods Work in Process Job 71 completed in December. Job 71 1,000 units of American History Direct materials Direct Labor Factory Overhead 2,000 3,500 1,750 Total job cost$10,250 Balance$ 3,000 Job 71 was started in November and competed in December.

39 FINISHED GOODS LEDGER ITEM: American History Manufactured Shipped Balance Job Ship Order Order Unit No. Quantity Amount No. Quantity Amount Date Quantity Amount Price Sale of Product Sold 2,000 American History textbooks on account, $28,000. Dec. 12,000$ 20,000$10.00

40 FINISHED GOODS LEDGER ITEM: American History Manufactured Shipped Balance Job Ship Order Order Unit No. Quantity Amount No. Quantity Amount Date Quantity Amount Price Dec. 12,000$ 20,000$ ,000$20, Sold 2,000 American History textbooks on account, $28,000. Sale of Product

41 The receiving report and the invoice are used to record the receipt of the merchandise and to control the payment. h. Cost of Goods Sold Finished Goods Cost of 2,000 American History textbooks sold. Entry to remove books from inventory. The receiving report and the invoice are used to record the receipt of the merchandise and to control the payment. i. Accounts Receivable Sales Revenue received from textbooks sold. Entry to record sale on account. Sale of Product

42 FINISHED GOODS LEDGER ITEM: American History Manufactured Shipped Balance Job Ship Order Order Unit No. Quantity Amount No. Quantity Amount Date Quantity Amount Price Dec. 12,000$ 20,000$ ,000$20, ,000$10,250311,00010, Transfer to Finished Goods Job 71 is transferred to finished goods.

43 Examples of Period Costs SELLING EXPENSES  Advertising expenses  Sales salaries expenses  Commission expenses

44 Examples of Period Costs ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES Office salaries expenses Office supplies expenses Depreciation expense— office buildings and office equipment

45 Goodwell Printers Income Statement For the Month Ended December 31, 2006 Sales$28,000 Cost of goods sold 20,150 Gross profit$ 7,850 Selling and admin. expenses: Sales salaries expense$2,000 Office salaries expense 1,500 Total selling and admin. expenses 3,500 Income from operations$ 4,350

46 Overview of Job Order Costing Overview of Job Order Costing Product Costs Costs & Expenses Balance Sheet Direct Labor Direct Labor Direct Labor Direct Labor Factory Overhead Finished Goods Inventory Finished Goods Inventory Cost of goods manufactured Work in Process Inventory Work in Process Inventory Materials Inventory Materials Inventory Materials Purchases Materials Purchases

47 Cost of Goods Sold Cost of Goods Sold Product Costs Period Costs Costs & Expenses Balance Sheet Direct Labor Direct Labor Direct Labor Direct Labor Factory Overhead Finished Goods Inventory Finished Goods Inventory Work in Process Inventory Work in Process Inventory Income Statement Selling and Administrative Selling and Administrative Selling and Administrative Selling and Administrative Period costs flow directly to the income statement Overview of Job Order Costing Overview of Job Order Costing Materials Inventory Materials Inventory Materials Purchases Materials Purchases

48 Flow of Manufacturing Costs DM Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Wages Payable Factory Overhead Cost of Goods Sold DM Materials Purchased Total Wages Direct materials used in production DM

49 DM Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Wages Payable Factory Overhead Cost of Goods Sold IM DM Materials Purchased Total Wages Indirect materials used in production IM Flow of Manufacturing Costs IM

50 DM Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Wages Payable DL Factory Overhead Cost of Goods Sold IM DM Materials Purchased Total Wages Direct labor used in production DL Flow of Manufacturing Costs IM DL

51 DM Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Wages Payable DL Factory Overhead Cost of Goods Sold IM IL DM IM DL IL Materials Purchased Total Wages Indirect labor used in production IL Flow of Manufacturing Costs

52 DM Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Wages Payable DL Factory Overhead Cost of Goods Sold IM IL DM IM DL IL Materials Purchased Total Wages Other factory overhead costs incurred during production OFOH Flow of Manufacturing Costs OFOH

53 DM Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Wages Payable DL Factory Overhead Cost of Goods Sold IM IL DM IM DL IL OFOH Materials Purchased Total Wages Based on predetermined overhead rate FOHA Factory overhead applied to work in process FOHA Flow of Manufacturing Costs FOHA

54 DM Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Wages Payable DL Factory Overhead Cost of Goods Sold IM IL DM IM DL FOHA IL OFOHCOGMCOGM Materials Purchased Total Wages FOHA Cost of goods manufactured and transferred to finished goods COGM Flow of Manufacturing Costs

55 DM Materials Work in Process Finished Goods Wages Payable DL Factory Overhead Cost of Goods Sold IM IL DM IM DL FOHA IL OFOH SOLD Materials Purchased Total Wages FOHA Finished goods sold SOLD COGMCOGM Flow of Manufacturing Costs SOLD

56 Job Order Systems for Professional Service Businesses Work in ProcessWages PayableCost of Services OverheadSupplies Direct labor xxx Indirect labor xxx Purchased xxx Used xxx xxx Other costs xxx Applied xxx xxx Completed jobs xxx

57 The End Chapter 18


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