Presentation on theme: "HE CALORIMETER DETECTOR UPGRADE R&D"— Presentation transcript:
1HE CALORIMETER DETECTOR UPGRADE R&D Y. OnelforUniversity of IowaFairfield UniversityUniversity of MississippiSLHC Workshop at FNALNovember 19 – 21, 2008
2HCAL Upgrades First Phase of the R&D 1st Phase of R&D2nd Phase of R&DLight enhancement tools: ZnO, PTPRadiation damage tests on Quartz and PTP3rd Phase of R&DAlternative readout options:PIN Diode, APD, SiPMT, MCPMicrochannel PMT, MPPCRadiation Hard WLS Fiber optionsQuartz core sputtered with ZnOSapphire fibersFirst Phase of the R&DShow that the proposed solution is feasibleTests and simulations of QPCAL-1
3The “Problem” and the “Solution” As a solution to the radiation damage problem in SuperLHC conditions, quartz plates are proposed as a substitute for the scintillators at the Hadronic Endcap (HE) calorimeter.Quartz plates will not be affected by high radiation. But the number of generated cerenkov photons are at the level of 1% of the scintillators.Rad-hard quartzQuartz in the form of fiber areirradiated in Argonne IPNS for 313 hours.The fibers were tested for optical degradationbefore and after 17.6 Mrad of neutron and73.5 Mrad of gamma radiation.Polymicro manufactured a specialradiation hard anti solarization quartz plate.
4Radiation Damage Tests on Quartz with 24 GeV protons K. Cankocak et al., NIM A 585, 20-27, 2008We investigated the darkening of two high OH content quartz fibers irradiated with 24 GeV protons at the Cern PS facility IRRAD.The two tested fibers have a 0.6mm quartz core diameter, one with hard plastic cladding (qp) and the other with quartz cladding (qq).These fibers were exposed at about 1.25 Grad in 3 weeks.The fibers became opaque below 380nm and in the range 580–650 nm.The darkening under irradiation and damage recovery after irradiation as a function of dose and time are similar to what we observed with electrons.The typical attenuation at 455nm are 1:44 0:22 and 2:20 0:15 dB=m at 100 Mrad for qp and qq fibres, respectively. The maximum damage recovery is also observed near this wavelength.
5Damage Recovery on Quartz Along and after irradiation the quartz exhibits a peculiar behaviour in the transmission of the blue light (near 450 nm) compared to the transmission of UV light and near 600 nm:Quite low absorption near 450 nm compared to high absorption below 380nm and near 600 nm.Almost full recovery of the radiation damage near 450nm and no recovery after high dose irradiation, below 380nm and above 580nm.
61st Paper : R&D Studies on Light Collection As a solution to the radiation damage problem in SuperLHC conditions, quartz plates are proposed as a substitute for the scintillators at the Hadronic Endcap (HE) calorimeter.The paper (CMS-NOTE 2007/019) summarizing the First Phase of the R&D studies has been published :F. Duru et al. “CMS Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for SLHC - Cerenkov Light Collection from Quartz Plates” , IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol 55, Issue 2, , Apr 2008.With these very nice comments from the editor and the refrees:“The paper is very interesting and clearly proves that a solution exits for calorimeters in the SLHC era with similar light collection.”“The authors are to be thanked for a very interesting piece of work”
71st Paper : R&D Studies on Light Collection We have tested/simulated different fiber geometries in the quartz plates, for their light collection uniformity and efficiency.WaveLength Shifting (WLS) fiber, Bicron 91a, is embedded in the quartz plate. Quartz plates are wrapped with reflecting material of 95 % efficiency.The Cerenkov photons reaching the PhotoMultiplierTube (PMT) are counted.Cerenkov Photons are shown in green. Photons emitted by WLS process are shown in red.At the test beams we compared the light collection efficiencies with that of original HE scintillators.
82nd Paper : Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype - I The first quartz plate calorimeter prototype (QPCAL - I) was built with WLS fibers, and was tested at CERN and Fermilab test beams.Hadronic Resolution
9What is missing on the 1st Phase? - The WLS fibers used in QPCAL are BCF-12 by Saint Gobain (old Bicron) are not radiation hard.The radiation hardness tests performed on BCF-12 shows that they are not very different than Kuraray 81 (current HE fibers).The studies shows that BCF-12 can be more radiation hard with the availability of oxygen.
10Engineering Options Second Phase of the R&D 1. How can we solve the fiber radiation problem?a) Use engineering designsb) Light enhancement tools (ZnO, PTP, etc.)2. Radiation Damage Testsa) On Quartzb) On PTPEngineering OptionsCurrent BCF-12 WLS fiber is not very radiation hard, but it can still be used*) We can engineer a system with fibers continuously fed thru a spool system. Iowa hasbuilt the source drivers for all HCAL (Paul Debbins), we also have expertise on site;Tom Schnell (University of Iowa Robotic Engineering).We have shown that a set of straight (or a gentle bend) quartz plate grooves allow WLS fibers to be easily pulled out and replaced.*) Different approach could be to use radiation hard quartz capillaries with pumpedWLS liquid. We have the expertise; B. Webb (Texas A & M), E. Norbeck (Iowa) andD. Winn (Fairfield).This has been studies at Fairfield. The liquid (benzyl alcohol + phenyl naphthalene) has an index of 1.6 but the attenuation length is still somewhat too short, possibly because of a too high WLS concentration.
11Engineering OptionsCurrent BCF-12 WLS fiber is very radiation hard, but it can still be used *) We can engineer a system with fibers continuously fed thru a spool system. Iowa has built the source drivers for all HCAL (Paul Debbins), we also have expertise on site; Tom Schnell (University of Iowa Robotic Engineering). We have shown that a set of straight (or a gentle bend) quartz plate grooves allow WLS fibers to be easily pulled out and replaced. *) Different approach could be to use radiation hard quartz capillaries with pumped WLS liquid. We have the expertise; B. Webb (Texas A & M), E. Norbeck (Iowa) and D. Winn (Fairfield). This has been studies at Fairfield. The liquid (benzyl alcohol + phenyl naphthalene) has an index of 1.6 but the attenuation length is still somewhat too short, possibly because of a too high WLS concentration.
12Light Enhancement Tools Proposed Solution*) Eliminate the WLS fibers:Increase the light yield with radiation hard scintillating/WLS materials and use a direct readout from the plate.Questions… Questions …*) What is out there to help us?PTP (oTP, mTP, pQP), and/or ZnO can be used to enhancethe light production.How to apply them to the plates? and what thickness?Which one work better?Which is more radiation hard?
13Quartz Plates with PTPAt Fermilab Lab7, we have covered quartz plates with PTP by evaporation. We deposited 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 micron thickness of PTP.
14Quartz Plates with PTPPTP evaporation setup, and quartz plate holder
15Quartz Plates with ZnOWe also cover quartz plates with ZnO (3% Ga doped), by RF sputtering.0.3 micron and 1.5 micron.We are currently working on 100 micron thick quartz plates, we’ve deposited ZnO on eachlayer and bundle the plates together, for a radiation hard scintillating plate Fermilab Lab7, ZnO sputtering system and guns.
16Test Beams for PTP and ZnO We have opportunity to test our ZnO andPTP covered plates, at CERN (Aug07), andFermilab MTest (Nov 07, and Feb 08).Blue : Clean QuartzGreen : ZnO (0.3 micron)Red : PTP (2 micron)
17Test Beams for PTP and ZnO Mips from plain quartz plate.Mips from 0.3 micron thick ZnO (3% Ga) sputtered quartz plate.Mips from PTP evaporated quartz plate.
18Test Beams for PTP and ZnO We evaporated PTP on quartz plates in IOWAand tested them in MTest.Different deposition amounts and variationsWere tested.
19PTP Radiation Damage Tests Sr-90 activated scintillation light output of the different pTP samples whichare saturated in toluene. The toluene makes no measurable scintillation contribution.Protons were done at CERN and Indiana Cyclotron.The neutron data from Argonne.
20What is learned from Phase II ? The PTP and Ga:ZnO (4% Gallium doped) enhance the light production almost 4 times.OTP, MTP, and PQP did not perform as well as these.PTP is easier to apply on quartz, we have a functioning evaporation system in Iowa, works very well. We also had successful application with RTV. Uniform distribution is critical!!ZnO can be applied by RF sputtering, we did this at Fermilab- LAB7. We got 0.3 micron, and 1.5 micron deposition samples. 0.3 micron yields better light output.In light of these results we focused our efforts to Summer08 Cern Test Beam.
21Cern Test Beam – Summer 2008We have constructed and tested the QPCAL-II, with PTP deposited quartz layers.The 20cmx20cmx5mm, GE-124 quartz plates are used.2 μm PTP is evaporated on every quartz plate at Fermilab Lab 7.The readout has been performed with Hamamatsu R7525 PMTs.For hadronic configuration 7cm iron absorbers used between layers.No WLS fiber! This is the second prototype “QPCAL-II”
22Cern Test Beam – Summer 2008We also have tested different thickness of ZnO and PTP deposited plates for mips.Micro channel PMT prototypeAlso HF PMT tests are performed by the same team.
23Cern Test Beam – Summer 2008The “new plate” with stack of seven 100 μm thick quartz plates, each sputtered ZnO on. This can give us a very radiation hard scintillating quartz plate. As a by product of our work .
24QPCAL-II Hadronic Resolution - We have taken data with30, 50, 80, 130, 200, 250,300, and 350 GeV Pion beam.- Hadronic resolution is betterthan 12% at E > 350 GeV.*) At QPCAL-I the hadronic resoution was 18% at 300 GeV.
25QPCAL-II Hadronic Response Linearity Very linear response andA nice signal distribution
26QPCAL-II EM Configuration - After hadronic configuration the iron platesbetween layers reduced to 2mm thicknessfor Electron runs.- We call this EM configuration.- We took data with 50, 80, 100,120, and 200 GeV electrons
27QPCAL-II EM Configuration We had very good EM resolutionAs well, but at higher electronEnergies the signal started todeviate.
28QPCAL-II Muon Response 225 GeV Muon signal on QPCAL-II
29Different PTP Thickness on Quartz - The plate prepared in IOWA vacuum chambers performedreally well - Since we don’t have a thickness gauge we cannot tell thethickness, but it has 1gr PTP deposited on 15cmx15cm quartz.We did not see drastic variations between 2, 2.5, and 3 micron PTP deposited plates
307 layer 700 micron ZnO plate- We have deposited 0.2 micron ZnO (%4 Ga) to “100 micron” thick quartz plates.- This sandwich structure with 0.7 mm total thickness is placed in an aluminum frame and tested for mips on this test beam for the first time.- We got very promising results, for both pion and electron beams. We need to work on this technique to develop future “radiation hard scintillators”.
31off-axis beam vs co-axis beam The pyramids are positioned so the PMTsAre not aligned with the beam.When they are aligned with beam, we observeCerenkov form pmt window.
32Results from Cern TB 08We had very successful test beam, performed various tests at a very short time.QPCAL-II with PTP deposited plates and performed better than QPCAL-I (withWLS fibers). With the obtained hadronic resolution of better than %13, we successfully finished the 2nd phase of our R&D.As one of the many spinoffs of thisR&D , we showed than stacking veryThin ZnO treated quartz plates, we canGet “new rad-hard scintillators”.
33Third Phase of the R&D Alternative Readout Options : APD, SiPMT, PIN diode, Micro-channel PMT, MCP, MPPCWhich one is better? Wavelength response? Surface area?Are they radiation hard?Developing Radiation Hard Wavelength Shifing FibersQuartz fibers with ZnO covered core.Sapphire fibers
34New Readout Options We tested; *) Hamamatsu S8141 APDs (CMS ECAL APDs).The circuits have been build at Iowa. These APDs are knownto be radiation hard; NIM A504, (2003)*) Hamamatsu APDs: S5343, and S K*) PIN diodes; Hamamatsu S5973 and S*) Si PMTs
35New Readout Options SiPMT has lower noise level. For all of these readout options we designed differentamplifier approaches:50 Ohm amplifier.Transimpedance amplifier.Charge amplifier.50 Ohm Amplifier circuit design.
36New Readout OptionsThe speed of the readout is essential. The pulse width of the optical pulses from thescintillator limits the selection of photodiode orAPD used. A bandwidth of 175 MHz is equivalent to a rise and fall time of 1.75 nsec.TopologyPriceSpeed (Rise time)Input Equiv. NoiseCommentsPhotodiode with 50 Ohm amplifierLowFast (< 1 nsec)~ 50 pW/√HzSimple circuitryPhotodiode with fast transimpedance amplifierModerate (< 3 nsec)~ 10 pW/√HzAPD with 50 Ohm amplifierModerateFast~ 250 fW/√Hz(Gain of 50)Drift with temperatureHigh voltageModerate complexity for HVAPD gain from 25 to 150Moderate (<3 nsec)~ 50 fW/√HzSilicon PMT~.1 fW/√HzSimple to moderate complexity
37New Readout OptionsWe have tested ECAL APDs as a readout option. 2 APD connected to plain quartzPlate yields almost 4 times less light than fiber+PMT combination.
38So far what is learned from Phase III ? Single APD or SiPMT is not enough to readout a plate. But 3-4 APD or SiPMT can do the job.SiPMTs have less noise, higher gains, better match to PTP and ZnO emission λ.As the surface area get bigger APDs get slower, we cannot go above 5mm x 5mm.The PIN diodes are simply not good enough.The ECAL APDs are claimed to be radiation hardFeed the linear arrays of SiPMT or APD to the system, arranged as a strip of 5mm x cm long… engineering !!…A cylindrical HPD, 5-6 mm in diameter, with a sequence of coaxial target diodes anodes on the axis, cm long, and a cylindrical photocathode.
39Developing new technologies We propose to develop a radiation hard readout option.Microchannel PMT (Onel-Winn)MCP-PMT ( Hamamatsu and Photonis)MPPC (Multi Pixel Photon Counter)We also propose to develop a radiation hard WLS fiber option.Doped sapphire fibers.Quartz fibers with ZnO sputtered on core.
40Radiation hard readout option “Microchannel PMT” *) Fairfield and Iowa have focused on revolutionizing photomultiplier technology through miniaturization coupled with the introduction of new materials technologies for more efficient photocathodes and high gain dynode structures. *) Miniaturization enables photomultipliers to be directly mounted on circuit boards or silicon for interfacing directly with readout circuits. *) Fast response time, high gain, small size, robust construction, power efficiency, wide bandwidth, radiation hardness, and low cost.
41Radiation hard readout option “Microchannel PMT” *) Photograph of a micromachined PMT in engineering prototype form.*) The metal tabs for the dynode and focusing voltages, signal, cathode.*) 8 stage device is assembled from micromachined dynodes which exhibits a gain of up to 2-4 per stage onsingle stage.*) The total thickness < 5 mm.*) 8x4 pixel micro-dynode array is shown*) The layers are offset relative to each other to maximize secondary electron emission collisions.
42Hamamatsu MPPCs Hamamatsu released a new product. Multi Pixel Photon Counter, MPPC.We purchased this unit, working on tests, but it issimply an array of APDs. It is not the same thing withour proposed “microchannel PMT”.
43Ti:Sapphire looks promising But not so fast !! Remember, there is NO quick solution to our problem
44Doped Sapphire !!A. Alexandrovski et al.Ti3+Cr3+
45Ag-Sapphire ??A recent study shows that the Ag ions can be implanted into sapphire in the keV and MeVenergy regimes. The samples implanted at 3MeV shows a large absorption peak at thewavelengths ranging from 390 to 450 nm when heated to temperatures higher than 800◦C.Y. Imamura et al.
46What can be done with sapphire? Sapphire optical fibers are commercially available in standard lengths of 200 cm x 200 micron diameter. Cheaper stock fibners are 125 micron diameter x 125 cm long. These fibers are of use in Ti:sapphire fiber lasers, and sensors.A large variety of dopants are possible in sapphire, covering a large wavelength interval.Under the right conditions, the Ti+4 ion (40 ppm) in heat treated sapphire absorbs in the UV and emits in the blue, with a time constant 5-7 ns. it is reasonably (50%-90% or more) efficient. At 1ppm the shift is at 415 nm - even at 1 ppm the fluorescnece is visible to the human eye. At 40 ppm it shifts to 480 nm. Fe2+ and Mg2+. Other Ti charge states and other dopants absorb in the UV-Blue and emit in the yellow and red.We propose to investigate these and similar inorganic fibers, grown mainly for fiber lasers, but with dopants adjusted for fast fluorescence (rather than forbidden transistion population inversions), and to test the rad hardness.
47What about treating quartz fibers? Heterogenous nanomaterials Scintillating glass doped with nanocrystalline scintillators has also been shown to be a good shifter.We propose(i) testing radiation hardness and(ii) to investigate doping quartz cores with nanocrystalline scintillators (ZnO:Ga and CdS:Cu). The temperatures involved are very reasonable.Thin film fluorescent coatings on quartz cores nm UV has been shown to cause 5-10 ns fluorescence in MgF2, BaF2, ZnO:Ga. We propose coating rad-hard quartz fibers with a thin film, and then caldding with plastic or fluoride doped quartz. CVD deposition of Doped ZnO is now a commercial process, as it is used to make visible transparent conducting optical films as an alternative to indium tin oxide, as used in flat panel displays and solar cells.
48Damage of HE scintillators After 1.5·106 pb-1 integral luminosity(10 years LHC + 1 year SLHC)R (cm)Z (cm)After 5·105 pb-1 integralluminosity (10 years LHC)Tolerable level of the absorbtion dose for HCAL scintillators is order of 5·104 Gy (5 Mrad)5 layers of HCAL megatiles will be affected severely
49Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) The idea of the THGEM –to obtain gas amplificationinside «GEM mesh»Proposal from Russian ColleaguesReadoutDrift gapInduction gapVDVUVdVIVV- 200 V- 0 VSchematic view of the THGEM chamber
50The 10x10cm THGEMs were manufactured with standard PCB technology by precise drilling and Cu etching, out of double-face Cu-clad G-10 plate, of 0,4-0,8mm thicknessA gap of 0,1mm was kept between the rim of the drilled hole and the edge of the etched Cu patternPitch, a=0,8mmRim, r=0,1mmHole, d=0,4mmA microscope photograph of a THGEM
51The pulse-height dependence on the event rate of the THGEM for two different gains.thickness=0,4mm, hole diameter d=0,3mm and pitch a=1,0mmEffective gain of THGEMthickness=0,4mm, hole diameter d=0,3mm and pitch a=0,7mmTHGEM740 Torr
52Issues of THGEM Production Technology Different types of THGEM shape simulated using Maxwell (Sergey Vasilyev)Distance along Y across THGEM detector (mm)Electric field inside hole: ~40kV/cmElectric field (V/m)Electric field at theage of the Rim:~ kV/cmDistance along R, on THGEM surface (mm)RYRimHoleInduction :3-5 Kv/cmDrift:1-2 Kv/cmMultiplicationThe shape of the rim have an impact on corona at the boundary of Cu cladTechnological issues to avoid sharpness at the age of the rim is under study
53THGEM test pcb Boards were tested at HV = 2KV No sparks 100 mmDouble side G10 plateEtched Cu diameter 0,5 mmCu foilDrilled holet8 holes d=3.1mm8 holes d=0.8mm~10 mmRim around drilled holes~ 5 mmHV inputs from both sides of theCu plateBoards were testedat HV = 2KVNo sparks1. Sensitive area 100 x 100 mm22. Material: double-face Cu clad G10 plateThickness: t = 0,4 ÷ 0,8 mmDiameter of the hole: d = 0,4 mmPitch: p = 0,8 ÷ 1,2 mmRim around hole r = 0,1 mm
54Participation in the HCAL beam test The idea is to put the box of THGEMs: 4 planes ~30 x 30 cm separated by absorber (equivalent of 4 HCAL layers) in front of HCAL prototype on H2 beamGoal – to measure energy resolution of HE with and without THGEM2 options of R/O electrodes:R/O pads 10x10cm9 ch/plane x 4 planes = 36 R/O channels = 6 QIE boardsR/O pads 15x15cm4 ch/plane x 4 planes = 16 R/O channels = 3 QIE boardsTotal 36 R/O channels are needed = 6 QIE boards
55Schedule – Quartz Plates Purchase/Delivery of Quartz Plates: 4-6 monthsCoating of the plates by PTP or ZnO(Ga): 4-6 monthsPhotodetector testing: 3 monthsFinal system assembly testing: 3 monthsTotal: 18 months
57Radiation Hard WLS fibers: Sapphire Fibers Sapphire is a very radiation hard material and it can be brought into fiber form. But by itselfIt has very little absorption and florescence.Absorption in Sapphire can be provided by;conduction to valence band in UVmultiphonon in mid-IRnative defectsvacancies, antisites, interstitials,Impurities !!!!e.g. transition metals: Cr, Ti, Fe, …Tong et.al., Applied Optics, 39, 4, 495
58Problems with Ti:Sapphire There are some crystals used for lasers, but no fiber, yet.The Ti:Sapphire has a luminescence lifetime of 3.2 microsec!! And looks like this is temperature dependent (Macalik et. al. Appl. Physc. B55, ) .off “resonant” absorption significantsum of several species can contribute to absorption at given lRedox state importante.g. a[Ti3+] a[Ti4+]annealing alters absorption without altering impurity concentrationsImpurities do not necessarily act independentlyAl : Al :Ti3+ : Ti4+ : Al : Al Al : Ti3+ : Al : Al : Ti4+ : Alabsorption spectra at high concentrations not always same as low