Presentation on theme: "20 The New Frontier and the Great Society Kennedy and the Cold War"— Presentation transcript:
120 The New Frontier and the Great Society Kennedy and the Cold War QUIT20C H A P T E RThe New Frontier and the Great SocietyCHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1Kennedy and the Cold WarGRAPHMAPSECTION2The New FrontierSECTION3The Great SocietyVISUAL SUMMARY
220 The New Frontier and the Great Society HOME20C H A P T E RThe New Frontier and the Great SocietyCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the achievements and challenges of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations
320 The New Frontier and the Great Society I N T E R A C T HOME20C H A P T E RThe New Frontier and the Great SocietyI N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YAgainst the backdrop of an intense space race between America and the Soviet Union, the 1960 presidential election approaches. The leading candidates are a young, charismatic senator and the ambitious, experienced vice-president. The new president will face tremendous responsibilities. Abroad, the Soviet Union is stockpiling nuclear weapons. At home, millions suffer from poverty and discrimination.What are the qualities of effective leaders?Examine the Issues• How can a leader motivate and influence the public?• What skills are needed to persuade legislators?• What enables a leader to respond to crises?
420 The New Frontier and the Great Society The United States The World HOME20C H A P T E RThe New Frontier and the Great SocietyTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1960 Seventeen African countries gain independence.1960 John F. Kennedy is elected president.1961 U.S. launches the Bay of Pigs invasion.1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human in outer space.1962 John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the earth. U.S. and USSR face off in the Cuban missile crisis.1962 The drug thalidomide is pulled from the market after it is found responsible for thousands of birth defects in Europe.1963 President Kennedy is assassinated; Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president.1964 Lyndon B. Johnson is elected president. Congress passes the Economic Opportunity Act and Civil Rights Act.1965 United States troops enter Vietnam.1965 Ferdinand Marcos becomes president of the Phillipines.continued . . .
520 The New Frontier and the Great Society The United States The World HOME20C H A P T E RThe New Frontier and the Great SocietyTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1966 Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister of India.1967 Thurgood Marshall becomes the first African-American justice of the Supreme Court.1967 Israel wins Arab territories in the Six Day War.1968 Richard M. Nixon is elected president.1968 Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia.
6Kennedy and the Cold War S E C T I O N1Kennedy and the Cold WarHOMEKEY IDEAForeign affairs dominate the presidential campaign of 1960 and the administration of John F. Kennedy. Kennedy faces some of the most dangerous Soviet-American confrontations of the Cold War.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
7Kennedy and the Cold War S E C T I O N1Kennedy and the Cold WarHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Kennedy administration faced some of the most dangerous Soviet confrontations in American history.America’s response to Soviet threats developed the United States as a military superpower.TERMS & NAMES• John F. Kennedy• flexible response• Limited Test Ban Treaty• Fidel Castro• hot line• Berlin WallASSESSMENT
8Kennedy and the Cold War S E C T I O N1Kennedy and the Cold WarHOMEASSESSMENT1. List two outcomes for each of these events: first Kennedy-Nixon debate, Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuban missile crisis, and construction of the Berlin Wall.Increased Cold War tensionsUnited States embarrassedBay of PigsBerlin WallSymbolized Communist oppressionCuba moved closer to Soviets.Kennedy won support.World at brink of nuclear warDebateCuban Missile CrisisTV became important in politics.Soviets backed down.continued . . .
9Kennedy and the Cold War S E C T I O N1Kennedy and the Cold WarHOMEASSESSMENT2. How well do you think President Kennedy handled the Cuban missile crisis? Think About:• Kennedy’s decision to impose a naval “quarantine” of Cuba• the nuclear showdown between the superpowers• Kennedy’s decision not to invade CubaANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:Well-handled: The Cuban missiles were removed, nuclear war was averted, and there was no military engagement.Not well-handled: He risked nuclear war over the crisis.continued . . .
10Kennedy and the Cold War S E C T I O N1Kennedy and the Cold WarHOMEASSESSMENT3. What kind of political statement was made by the United States’ support of West Berlin?ANSWERThe United States was telling other nations, the Soviet Union especially, to keep their hands off West Berlin.End of Section 1
112 The New Frontier KEY IDEA S E C T I O N2The New FrontierGRAPHMAPHOMEKEY IDEAWith the stirring phrase “the New Frontier,” Kennedy outlines a broad vision for progress, but Congress enacts few of his initiatives. His efforts are ended by his tragic assassination.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
122 The New Frontier OVERVIEW S E C T I O N2The New FrontierGRAPHMAPHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWWhile Kennedy had trouble getting his ideas for a New Frontier passed, several goals were achieved.Kennedy’s space program continues to generate scientific and engineering advances that benefit Americans.TERMS & NAMES• Warren Commission• New Frontier• Alliance for Progress• mandate• Peace CorpsASSESSMENT
13S E C T I O N2The New FrontierGRAPHMAPHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five programs of the New Frontier.Peace CorpsCivil rights billThe New FrontierAlliance for ProgressTax cutMoon programcontinued . . .
14S E C T I O N2The New FrontierGRAPHMAPHOMEASSESSMENT2. Why do you think Congress was so enthusiastic about allocating funds for the space program but rejected spending in education, social services, and other pressing needs?ANSWERIt was largely a matter of pride, since the Soviets had already sent a cosmonaut into space.continued . . .
15S E C T I O N2The New FrontierGRAPHMAPHOMEASSESSMENT3. Why do you think Kennedy lost popularity for supporting civil rights?ANSWERKennedy lost popularity for supporting civil rights because people in some sections of the country opposed granting civil rights to African Americans.continued . . .
16S E C T I O N2The New FrontierGRAPHMAPHOMEASSESSMENT4. Do you think President Kennedy was a successful leader? Think About:• the reasons for his popularity• the goals he expressed• his foreign policy• his legislative recordANSWERSuccessful: popular; focused on projects that Congress would support; peacefully handled the missile crisis; arranged for the test-ban treatyNot successful: tended to react to events rather than lead; did not get his legislative program enacted before his deathEnd of Section 2
173 The Great Society KEY IDEA S E C T I O N3The Great SocietyHOMEKEY IDEALyndon B. Johnson drives the most ambitious legislative agenda through Congress since the New Deal. The landmark decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren reflect the era of liberal activism.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
183 The Great Society OVERVIEW S E C T I O N3The Great SocietyHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe demand for reform helped create a new awareness of social problems, especially on matters of civil rights and the effects of poverty.Reforms made in the 1960s have had a lasting effect on the American justice system by increasing the rights of minorities.TERMS & NAMES• Lyndon Baines Johnson• Medicare and Medicaid• reapportionment• Immigration Act of 1965• Economic Opportunity Act• Great Society• Warren CourtASSESSMENT
19S E C T I O N3The Great SocietyHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four or more Great Society programs and Warren Court rulings.Great Society ProgramsWarren Court Rulings188.8.131.52.Civil Rights Act of 1964Brown v. Board of EducationEconomic Opportunity ActBaker v. CarrElementary and Secondary Education ActEscobedo v. IllinoisMedicare and MedicaidMiranda v. Arizonacontinued . . .
20S E C T I O N3The Great SocietyHOMEASSESSMENT2. Explain how Lyndon Johnson’s personal and political experiences might have influenced his actions as president. Think About:• his family’s background and education• his relationship with Franklin Roosevelt• his powers of persuasionANSWERJohnson’s upbringing might have taught him about the hardships of those in need; as a New Dealer, he learned how the government could help people in need; in Congress, he learned the importance of political connections and clout and the skills to negotiate political deals.End of Section 3