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Morphology of Range Plants. Objectives  Define plant morphology  Describe characteristics of the leaves, stems, roots, and flowers of range plants 

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Presentation on theme: "Morphology of Range Plants. Objectives  Define plant morphology  Describe characteristics of the leaves, stems, roots, and flowers of range plants "— Presentation transcript:

1 Morphology of Range Plants

2 Objectives  Define plant morphology  Describe characteristics of the leaves, stems, roots, and flowers of range plants  Describe the anatomy of grasses

3 Plant Morphology  Describes the physical form and external structures of a plant

4 Stems Stems—the axes of plants—consist of nodes (where leaves and axillary buds are produced) separated by internodes.

5 Stems Hollow or PithySolid Not JointedSolidWoody Solid GrassesGrass-likesForbsShrubs (Sedges)(Rushes)

6 Sharp things  Thorn - sharp-pointed stem/shoot (fr. axillary bud)  Spine - sharp-pointed leaf or leaf part leaf spine (also leaflet spine) stipular spine petiolar spine  Prickle - sharp pointed epidermal appendage

7 Stem (Shoot) Types & Modifications

8

9

10 Onion Bulb

11 Compare ……???

12 Leaves  Important characteristics Type Arrangement Shape Margin Veination Apex

13 External Parts of the Leaf

14 The major parts of the leaf are shown in Figure 4.3. In monocots the leaf is almost always broadly sheathing at the base. In taxa such as grasses and gingers there is an adaxial flap or ligule at the junction of the sheath and blade. A leaf that lacks a petiole is said to be sessile.

15 Leaf Types  Simple  Compound Compound - PalmateCompound - Pinnate

16 Leaf Arrangements (Compound)

17

18 Leaf Forms

19 Leaf characteristics

20 Leaf Shapes Ovate Palmate Linear EllipticLanceolateOblanceolate Wedge-shapedArrow-shapedObovate

21 Finally, the leaf may have many parallel veins, a pattern termed parallel venation.

22 Leaf Bases

23

24 Leaf Margins

25 Leaf margins

26 Leaf Margin - The leaf blade may have lobed or unlobed margins. These and other types of margins are: unlobed, lobed, entire, dentate, serrate, and crenate.

27 Leaf Margins Serrated Lobed-pinnateLobed-palmate ToothedScallopedEntire

28 Leaf Tips

29 Leaf Apex and Base - Various terms relating to the shape of the leaf apex or leaf base include: acute, obtuse, acuminate, emarginate, truncate, and rounded (apex); acute, obtuse, rounded, decurrent, truncate, cordate, lobate, and sagittate (bases).

30 Leaf Veinations ParallelPinnate PalmateNetted

31 Leaf Arrangements (Simple)

32 Leaf Arrangements Alternate OppositeWhorled

33

34 Roots

35 Flowers  Inflorescence types SpikeRaceme Panicle UmbelHead

36 Inflorescence types Umbel

37 Flowers  Composite Heads Ray FlowersDisk FlowersRay and Disk Flowers

38 Warm-up 03/15 1. _________ 2. _______ 3. _______ 4. _______ 5. _______ Label the following 5 flower parts.

39

40 Parts of the Flower  Sepals Outer covering of the flower bud. Protects the stamens and pistils when flower is in bud stage. Collectively known as the calyx.

41 Parts of the Flower  Petals Brightly colored Protects stamen & pistils. Attracts pollinating insects. Collectively called the corolla.

42 Parts of the Flower (Stamen)  Male reproductive part Anther  Produces pollen Filament  Supports the anther

43 Parts of the Flower (Pistil)  Female reproductive part Ovary  Enlarged portion at base of pistil  Produces ovules which develop into seeds Stigma  Holds the pollen grains

44 Parts of the Flower (Pistil)  Style Connects the stigma with the ovary Supports the stigma so that it can be pollinated

45 Parts of the Flower

46 Schematic of a Complete, Perfect Flower

47 Imperfect Flower  Male or female reproductive organs not, but not both.  Example: A male flower has sepals, petals, and stamen, but no pistils. A female flower has sepals, petals, and pistils, but no stamen.

48 Perfect Flowers  Contains both male and female reproductive structures.

49 Incomplete Flowers  Missing one of the four major parts of the flower. Stamen Pistil Sepal Petal

50 Complete Flowers  Contains male and female reproductive organs along with petals and sepals.

51 Flowers  Imperfect flowers are always incomplete but……..  Perfect flowers are not always complete and……..  Complete flowers are always perfect.

52 Importance of Flowers  Important in florist & nursery businesses.  Many plants are grown solely for their flowers.  Plants have flowers to attract insects for pollination, but people grow them for beauty & economic value.

53 Important Flower Crops

54 Flower Dissection  Working in table group. One dicot and one monocot flower per table  Follow directions in your packet.

55 All Structures:

56 Petals

57 Leaf

58 Stamen  Male reproductive structure  Composed of an anther and filament  The anther produces pollen grains

59 Stamen

60 Pistil  Female reproductive structure  Composed of stigma, style, and ovary  Eggs develop in the ovary

61 Pistil

62 Ovary longitudinal section

63 Exposed Ovules

64 Fleshy fruit types

65 Warm-up 03/16  Monocot or Dicot? Monocot Monocot Dicot

66

67 Anatomy of Grasses Spikelet Inflorescence Internode Culm (stem) Node (joint) Rhizome Stolon Leaf


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