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Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -19 Dr.Surriya Shaffi Mir.

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1 Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -19 Dr.Surriya Shaffi Mir

2 2 In today’s lesson you are going to read about types of memory to be found in a computer. We will follow the usual pattern of reading followed by comprehension exercises, scanning for information vocabulary exercise and content review exercises. This will be followed by exercises on how language functions operate in English.

3 3 Types of memory [1]As mentioned previously, one of the most important characteristics of a computer is its capability of storing information in its memory long enough to process it. Not all computers have the same type of memory. In this section, three types of memory will be discussed: core memory, semiconductor memory (or chip), and bubble memory.

4 4 [2]The memory of the first computers was made up of a kind of grid of fine vertical and horizontal wires. At each intersection where the wires crossed, there was a small ferrite ring called a core (hence the name ‘core memory’) which was capable of being either magnetized or demagnetized. Every intersection had its unique address; consequently, when an electrical current was passed through the wires, the magnetized as well as the unmagnetized cores were identified by their respective addresses.

5 5 [2a].Each core represented a binary digit of either 0 or 1, depending on its state. Early computers had a capacity of around 80,000 bits; whereas now, it is not surprising to hear about computers with a memory capacity of millions of bits. This has been made possible by the advent of transistors and by the advances in the manufacture of miniaturized circuitry. As a result, mainframes have been reduced in both size and cost. Throughout the 1950s, 1960s and up to the mid-1970s, core memory dominated the market.

6 6 [3]In the 1970s, there was a further development which revolutionized the computer field. This was the ability to etch thousands of integrated circuits onto a tiny piece (chip) of silicon, which is a non- metallic element with semiconductor characteristics. Chips have thousands of identical circuits, each one capable of storing one bit because of the very small size of the chip, and consequently of the circuits etched on it, faster.

7 7 [3a].Moreover, the size of the components containing the circuitry can be considerably reduced, a step which has led to the introduction of both minis and micros. As a result, computers have become smaller, faster, and cheaper. There is one problem with semiconductor memory, however: when power is removed, information in the memory is lost-unlike core memory, which is capable of retaining information during a power failure.

8 8 [4]Another development in the field of computer memories is bubble memory. The concept consists of creating a thin film of metallic alloys over the memory board. When this film is magnetized, it produces magnetic bubbles, the presence or absence of which represents one bit of information. These bubbles are extremely tiny, about 0.1 micrometer in diameter.

9 9 [4a].Therefore, a magnetic bubble memory can store information at a greater density than existing memories, which makes it suitable for micros. Bubble memories are not expensive, consume little power, are small in size, and are highly reliable. There is probably a lot more to learn about them, and research in this field continues.

10 10 1Main idea Which statements do not express the main idea of the text? 1. Core memory was the first type of computer memory developed. 2. There are at least three different kinds of memory used in computers. 3. Bubble memory is the latest development in computer memory.

11 11 1Main idea Which statements do no express the main idea of the text? 1. Core memory was the first type of computer memory developed. 2. There are at least three different kinds of memory used in computers. 3. Bubble memory is the latest development in computer memory. 1 & 3 are not main ideas. Both are details of the historical development of memory & don’t show the different types of memory there are.

12 12 2Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. TF 1. The most important function of a computer is to hold information in its memory in order to process it.

13 13 2Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. TF 1. The most important function of a computer is to hold information in its memory in order to process it. T

14 14 TF 2. Minicomputers, microcomputers, and mainframes all have the same kind of memory. 3. Semiconductor memory was developed before core memory and after bubble memory. 4. Core memory uses small metal rings which can be magnetized or unmagnetized.

15 15 TF 2. Minicomputers, microcomputers, and mainframes all have the same kind of memory. 3. Semiconductor memory was developed before core memory and after bubble memory. Semi conductor of chip 4. Core memory uses small metal rings which can be magnetized or unmagnetized. T F T memory developed after core memory and before bubble memory

16 16 TF 5. The state of the core can be represented by either 0 or Early computer memories had less storage capacity than newer ones. 7. A transistor and a chip are the same kind of device.

17 17 TF 5. The state of the core can be represented by either 0 or Early computer memories had less storage capacity than newer ones. 7. A transistor and a chip are the same kind of device. T T F A chip is a piece of silicon used in transistors and computers

18 18 TF 8. The development of chips makes it possible for minicomputers and microcomputers to be invented. 9. Bubble memory is smaller than a chip. 10. Bubble memory doesn’t have very many advantages.

19 19 TF 8. The development of chips make it possible for minicomputers and microcomputers to be invented. 9. Bubble memory is smaller than a chip. 10. Bubble memory doesn’t have very many advantages. T T F Bubble memories are not expensive, consume little power are small in size and highly reliable. More research needed in this field.

20 20 3Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line references. ………….1. First there is core memory. ………….2. Further to this development, chips evolved. ………….3. There are three types of memory board.

21 21 3Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line references. ………….1. First there is core memory. ………….2. Further to this development, chips evolved. ………….3. There are three types of memory board. P.1 P.3 P.1

22 22 ………….4. This consists of producing a thin film over a memory board. ………….5. Then semiconductor memory was developed. ………….6. There is still a lot to learn about this process. ………….7. This is made up of thin wires and rings. ………….8. Finally, bubble memory was invented.

23 23 ………….4. This consists of producing a thin film over a memory board. ………….5. Then semiconductor memory was developed. ………….6. There is still a lot to learn about this process. ………….7. This is made up of thin wires and rings. ………….8. Finally, bubble memory was invented. P.4 P.3 P.4 P.2 P.4

24 24 4Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 1. Long enough to process it (1.3)………. 2. where the wires crossed (1.7)………. 3. which was capable of being (1.9)………. 4. By their receptive addresses (1.12)…… This has been made possible (1.6)………

25 25 4Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 1. Long enough to process it (p.1)………. 2. where the wires crossed (p.2)………. 3. which was capable of being (p.2)………. 4. By their receptive addresses (p.2)…… This has been made possible (p.2)……… information intersection core cores Memory capacity of millions of bits

26 26 6. which revolutionized the computer field (1.21)………. 7. each one capable of storing one bit (1.25)………. 8. of the circuits etched on it (1.26)………. 9. it produces magnetic bubbles(1.37)…… of which represents one bit (1.38)……….

27 27 6. which revolutionized the computer field (p.3)………. 7. each one capable of storing one bit (p.3)………. 8. of the circuits etched on it (p.3)………. 9. it produces magnetic bubbles(p.4)…… of which represents one bit (p.4)………. development chips chip film bubbles

28 28 5Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words. 1.said(1.1)…………... 2.own (1.2)…………... 3.progress (1.17)…………... 4.keeping (1.33)…………... 5.appropriate (1.42)…………...

29 29 5Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words. 1.said(p.1)…………... 2.own (p.2)…………... 3.progress (p.2)…………... 4.keeping (p.3)…………... 5.appropriate (p.4)…………... mentioned respective advances retaining suitable

30 30 Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words. 6.neither … nor(1.1)…………... 7.bypassed (1.2)…………... 8.increased (1.17)…………... 9.Not producing (1.33)………… don’t use up (1.42)…………...

31 31 Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words. 6.neither … nor(p.2)…………... 7.bypassed (p.2)…………... 8.increased (p.2)…………... 9.Not producing (p.3)………… don’t use up (p.4)…………... either... or passed through reduced creating consume

32 32 6Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.

33 33 1.alteration, alter, altered a. When a program doesn’t work properly, it is often necessary to make……..to it. b. The omission of data from a program can………….its results drastically. c. The use of the computer in business has………..the workload of many people.

34 34 1.alteration, alter, altered a. When a program doesn’t work properly, it is often necessary to make……………....to it. b. The omission of data from a program can………….its results drastically. c. The use of the computer in business has………..the workload of many people. alterations alter altered

35 35 2.electricity, electric, electrical, electrically a. A lot of………….is needed to operate large computer systems. b. Alexander Graham Bell invented the……………light bulb. c. Many students today are studying to become……………engineers.

36 36 2.electricity, electric, electrical, electrically a. A lot of………….is needed to operate large computer systems. b. Alexander Graham Bell invented the……………light bulb. c. Many students today are studying to become……………engineers. electricity electric electrical

37 37 3.reduction, reduce, reduced a. The introduction of the computer in the workplace has…………..the workload of many people. b. There will probably be a great…………….in the consumption of oil in the next decade due to the use of computer technology.

38 38 3.reduction, reduce, reduced a. The introduction of the computer in the workplace has…………..the workload of many people. b. There will probably be a great…………….in the consumption of oil in the next decade due to the use of computer technology. reduced reduction

39 39 4.creation, create, created, creative a. A programmer usually has a………….as well as a logical mind. b. It takes a lot of inspiration and hard work to come up with a new………….in computer technology. c. Computers have certainly …………….few opportunities for fraud.

40 40 4.creation, create, created, creative a. A programmer usually has a………….as well as a logical mind. b. It takes a lot of inspiration and hard work to come up with a new………….in computer technology. c. Computers have certainly …………….few opportunities for fraud. creative creation created

41 41 7Content review Use the information in the text on ‘Types of Memory’ to complete the table.

42 42 Type DevelopedSizeCompositionMemory Capacity 1.Large80,000 bits 2Integrated circuits on non-metallic element 3.

43 43 Type DevelopedSizeCompositionMemory Capacity 1.Large80,000 bits 2.Integrated circuits on non-metallic element 3. core 1950s Grid of vert. & horizontal wires w. small ferrite ring at intersection chip Early 1970s tiny millions bubble Late 1970s Extremely tiny Thin film over metallic alloys Greater than existing

44 44 8Focus review Focus GTime sequence Complete the following table by referring back to the text on ‘Types of Memory’.

45 45 ParaTime Sequence MarkerInformation [2]The computerhad memories up of a kind of grid of fine vertical and horizontal wires [2]computershad a capacity of around 80,000 bits [2]whereasit is not surprising to hear about computers with a memory capacity of millions of bits [2]core memory dominated the market [3]there was further development which revolutionized computer field

46 46 ParaTime Sequence MarkerInformation [2]The firstcomputerhad memories up of a kind of grid of fine vertical and horizontal wires [2]earlycomputershad a capacity of around 80,000 bits [2]whereas nowit is not surprising to her about computers with a memory capacity of millions of bits [2]Throughout the 1950s,core memory dominated the ‘60s & upto the mid 70smarket [3]In the 1970sthere was further development which revolutionized computer field

47 47 Focus I Adding information Complete the following sentences by referring back to the text on ‘Types of Memory’. 1.In the 1970s there was a …………………. development which revolutionized the computer field. (Para. 3) 2.…………………., the size of the components containing the circuitry can be considerably reduced… (Para. 3) 3.………………….development in the field of computer memories is bubble memory. (Para. 4)

48 48 Focus I Adding information Complete the following sentences by referring back to the text on ‘Types of Memory’. 1.In the 1970s there was a …………………. development which revolutionized the computer field. (Para. 3) 2.…………………., the size of the components containing the circuitry can be considerably reduced… (Para. 3) 3.………………….development in the field of computer memories is bubble memory. (Para. 4) further Moreover Another

49 49 FOCUS J Giving an explanation or a definition In texts similar to those in this book, authors often give definitions to new or unfamiliar terms, or vocabulary items and concepts, or ideas specific to the subject being discussed. Not only are definitions given, but explanations are often supplied, either implicitly or explicitly, to avoid confusion in the mind of the reader.

50 50 1.Some expressions or markers used to define or explain a statement explicitly are: meansby … we mean* is taken to beby … is meant* denotesin other words refers tothat is (to say)* is defined as * occurs in initial position

51 51 Examples 1.The term computer refers to the processor plus the internal memory. 2.A chip is defined as a tiny square piece of silicon upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are etched or imprinted, after which the circuit is encapsulated in plastic, ceramic, or metal. 3.By peripherals we mean those devices which are attached to the computer.

52 52 2.There are other methods used to define or explain, depending on the style used. One very common method is to give the term being defined and say what it is without repeating the term, i.e. X is/are Y. Examples 1.A computer is an electronic device. 2.Tapes and disks are memory devices. 3.Printers are output devices.

53 53 3. Another very common method is to use the same pattern as in 2 above and also give some distinguishing characteristics. Examples 1.A computer is an electronic device which/that processes information. 2.Tapes and disks are memory devices which/that can be stored away for future use. 3.A programmer is a person who prepares programs to solve problems.

54 54 N.B.The relative pronouns used in this type of definition will be who or that for people, when for a period of time, where for place or location, and that or which for things. 4.One of the most frequent forms of definition or explanation is to use two nouns (or noun phrases) in apposition, separated by commas.

55 55 Examples 1.Computers, electronic devices for processing information, are now used in practically every aspect of life. 2.Systems software, programs, direct the computer to perform tasks. 3.Turnkey systems, complete hardware/software products, may be provided along with the hardware by a systems supplier.

56 56 Exercise 1 Study the following definitions. A definition usually includes all three parts: the term to be defined, the group it belongs to, and the characteristics which distinguish it form other members of the group. TERMGROUPCHARACTERISTICS A coreis a ferrite ringwhich is capable of being either magnetized or demagnetized Siliconis a nonmetallic with semiconductor elementcharacteristics

57 57 Exercise 1 Study the following definitions. A definition usually includes all three parts: the term to be defined, the group it belongs to, and the characteristics which distinguish it form other members of the group. TERMGROUPCHARACTERISTICS A coreis a ferrite ringwhich is capable of being either magnetized or demagnetized Siliconis a nonmetallic with semiconductor elementcharacteristics

58 58 Now analyse the following definitions and identify the different parts by circling the term; by underlining the group once, and by underlining the characteristics twice. 1.A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. 2.An abacus is a bead frame in which the beads are moved form left to right 3.Input is the information presented to the computer.

59 59 Now analyse the following definitions and identify the different parts by circling the term; by underlining the group once, and by underlining the characteristics twice. (in yellow) 1.A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. 2.An abacus is a bead frame in which the beads are moved form left to right 3.Input is the information presented to the computer.

60 60 4.The term ‘computer’ includes those parts of hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations are performed and the high-speed interval memory in which data and calculations are stored during actual executions of programs. 5.A ‘system’ is a good mixture of integrated parts working together to form a useful whole 6.Large computer systems, or mainframes, as they are referred to in the field of computer science, are those computer systems fund in computer installations processing immense amounts of data.

61 61 4.The term ‘computer’ includes those parts of hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations are performed, and he high-speed interval memory in which data and calculations are stored during actual executions of programs. 5.A ‘system’ is a good mixture of integrated parts working together to form a useful whole. 6.Large computer systems, or mainframes, as they are referred to in the field of computer science, are those computer systems found in computer installations processing immense amounts of data.

62 62 7.Although there is no exact definition for a minicomputer, it is generally understood to refer to a computer whose mainframe is physically small, has a fixed word length between 8 and 32 bits, and costs less than $100,00 for the central processor.

63 63 7.Although there is no exact definition for a minicomputer, it is generally understood to refer to a to a computer whose mainframe is physically small, has a fixed word length between 8 and 32 bits, and costs less than $100,00 for the central processor.

64 64 In today’s lesson we read about types of memory to be found in a computer. We did comprehension exercises, scanning for information vocabulary exercise and content review exercises and we finally looked at how language functions operate in English. With this we come to the end of the lesson. Allah Hafiz.


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