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U.S. History Unit #1: The Gilded Age

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1 U.S. History Unit #1: The Gilded Age
Part 1

2 Manifest Destiny Following the Civil War, the notion of Manifest Destiny, the belief that the United States should extend to the Pacific because God willed it, again became a popular idea. American now controlled the land, now it was time to settle it.

3 The Government Motivation
The government wanted to gain wealth from the natural resources and land in the West. The Transcontinental railroad was a major motivation for the government to encourage settlement (need builders, workers, farmers, etc. out there)

4 Who Went West and Why? People of all classes, race, and background were enticed to head West in search of a new start and to increase their wealth. In particular, farmers, miners, and ranchers made up the majority of the people heading west. Why these professions?

5 Homestead Act Homestead Act: This act gave away free land to individuals and family willing to migrate West and stay there. The downside was most land had few resources on it. Many settlers build their homes out of parts of their wagon and dirt/sod.

6 The Railroads The railroads were vital in connecting the nation economically, socially, and politically. What is an example of each one? Congress offered railroads land grants of 20 million acres as well as loans. The railroads helped settle the lands they crossed and turned cities into major centers for transporting manufactured goods and processing raw material.

7 The Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah when the Southern Pacific and Union Pacific railroads linked together forming the first connection from the Atlantic to Pacific.

8 Land Disputes and Native Americans
One major western conflict was the dispute between Native Americans and Western settlers over the concept of property rights. Native Americans did not recognize the concept of property rights.

9 Land Disputes cont. Property rights are protected by the 5th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution - no one can be deprived of their property without “due process of law” and the federal government cannot take private property for public use without “just compensation.” Also, the 14th Amendment provides that citizens within federal and state jurisdictions “equal protection” under the law. Native Americans were not considered citizens and therefore, these rights did not apply to them. Most American Indians did not get citizenship rights until 1924.

10 Key Business Terms Industrialization: The growth of factories and companies Entrepreneur: A business person who starts their own business. Free Enterprise: The freedom that anyone can start a business. Monopoly: When one individual or company controls an entire Industry. Trust: Just like a monopoly but it involves multiple people working together to maintain control. Laissez-faire capitalism: French word meaning let it be and was a policy of the government not interfering/regulating the economy.

11 The growth of Industry and Robber Barons
As Industry grew, some men came to dominate and create monopolies in various industries. Although many of these men donated much money to charity they were still known as robber barons for being ruthless businessmen.

12 Major Robber Barons Andrew Carnegie: Owned U.S. Steel
John Rockefeller: Owned Standard Oil Cornelius Vanderbilt: Owned multiple railroads



15 Anti-Trust Anti-Trust laws are also known as Anti-Monopoly laws and are intended to stop the growth of monopolies in various industries. They are meant to make the business world fair for all participants.

16 Labor Unions Labor Unions are organizations of people from the same field or profession. Labor Unions speak for their members and fight for their rights as a worker. The first unions fought for better pay and working conditions.

17 Results of the Growth of Business
Huge profit for owners of large companies/monopolies (robber barons). The United States began to be a manufacturing giant in the world Growth of Labor Unions The trust-busting efforts and government regulations of business. One positive result was the philanthropy of the industrialists like Andrew Carnegie

18 New Technology of the Gilded Age
Telegraph: Messages for the first time did not have to be physically carried. Automobile: Many different versions but did not catch on until Ford developed the Model T and assembly line. Airplane: Changed both the transportation and military worlds.

19 New Technology Telephone: Made communication even faster than the telegraph. Typewriter: Allowed information and news to be generated more quickly and to more people. Light Bulb: Helped bring electricity into homes and made the American workforce more productive. How?

20 Prominent Inventors Thomas Edison invented many items and had hundreds of patents but is best known for creating the light bulb that changed American’s lifestyles The Wright Brothers created and flew the first engine powered airplane. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone and he quickly controlled a monopoly over the communications industry. His company is known as AT & T today.


22 Economic Aspects of the Gilded Age
Objects are in the picture/painting/cartoon? People are in the picture/painting/visual? Title is there; What Time period does it represent? Inferences can you draw based on this source? Conclusions can you draw based on this source? Symbols are present [in cartoons or graphs…] AND how can you Summarize the main idea?

23 Gilded Age Raft Role – Magazine Reporter for Gilded Age Times
Audience – readers of the magazine Format – Brief Editorial praising an industrialist as a Captain of Industry or condemning him as one of the Robber Barons/ Topic + strong verb - ____ [Name of the chosen Captain of Industry/Robber Baron]: Hero/Villain of the Gilded Age. _______ should be praised/condemned because…

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