4vulvaDefined: External female genitals. External portion of the female reproductive system is collectively referred to as the vulva.The vulva includes:Mons VenerisLabiaUrinaryVaginal OpeningsClitoris.The functions of the vulva are to protect the woman’s internal sexual organs, to act as a source of her sexual pleasure, and to enhance the arousal of her partner
5Vulva Beneath the vulva lies the vestibular bulbs: Structures on each side of the vaginal opening that engorge with blood and swell during sexual arousalThey are attached to the clitoris at the top and extend downward along the sides of the vaginal openingDuring sexual arousal the vestibular bulbs become engorged with blood, inflating the size of the clitoris and lengthening the vagina
7Mons venerisDefined: (Monis Pubis) Mound of fatty tissue over the pubic bone above the vagina.Pad of fatty tissue that cushions the pubic symphysis (slightly movable joint between the left and right pubic bones).Relatively delicate and could be bruised by the impact of sexual intercourse or riding a bicycleMons is supplied with a large number of nerve endings (some women find manual stimulation of the mons to be pleasurable).
8LabiaDefined: Extending down from the mons, the vulva includes two prominent sets of skin folds, collectively referred to as the labia (Latin for “lips”)With their vast network of nerve endings, the labia are an important source of sexual sensations for most women.Beneath the outer folds of skin of the labia majora is a network of connective tissue and fat.Under the fat is erectile tissue that engorges with blood during sexual arousal.When they are not stimulated, the labia majora are usually folded together to protect the urinary and vaginal openings
9labiaLabia Majora: Large folds of skin that form the outer lips of the vulva. Labia Minora: Folds of skin located within the labia majora that form the inner lips of the vulva.Bartholin’s Glands: Small glands inside the vaginal opening that secrete a few drops of fluid during sexual arousalThe few drops of fluid that they secrete during sexual arousal are not enough to effectively lubricate the vaginaAdditional functions of these glands are unknown
10vestibuleDefined: (“Entranceway”) Area of the vulva inside the labia minora.The vestibule is rich in blood vessels and nerve endings, making it even more sensitive to the touch than the labia minora.At the front of the vestibule (toward the abdomen), the labia minora meet to form a fold or small hood of skin called the prepuce (clitoral hood)When the clitoris is erect and the labia minora spread, the vestibule become visible.
11Urethral openingDefined: Duct through which urine is discharged from the bladder.Located below the clitoral glans and above the vaginal opening.Urine collected in the bladder passes through the urethra (tube through which urine from the bladder is expelled) and is excreted through the urethral opening.The urethral opening is not a reproductive organ.Although urine and semen both pass through the male penis, for women, urination and coitus do not occur through the same bodily opening
12Introitus and Hymen Introitus: Opening of the vagina Located between the urethral opening and the anus
13Introitus and HymenHymen: Membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening.Thin membrane containing a large number of blood vessels.May vary in shape and size:Annular Hymen: Surrounds the vaginal opening.Septate Hymen: Form a bridge over it.Cribriform Hymen: Appear as a sieve like covering.Normally the hymen has an opening large enough to permit menstrual flow or the insertion of a tampon, but too small to permit entry of an erect penis without tearing.Function of the hymen is unknown:Great deal of cultural significance.Presence of an intact hymen was historically considered proof that a woman had never had intercourse.Intact hymen is not proof of virginity.Some girls are born with minimal or incomplete hymensCan also be ruptured by accident.
15clitorisDefined: Highly sensitive female organ located above the urethral opening that’s only known function is sexual pleasure.Clitoris is located in the vestibule at the top of the labia minora under the prepuce.Three-sectioned cylindrical structure.Average size of an adult clitoris from base to glans is about 16 millimeters, approximately the diameter of a dime.Considerable variation in size and shape from one person to the next.
16clitorisClitoral Glans: Head of the clitoris, which has a large number of nerve endings.Located at the top of the clitoral shaft.Surrounded by a capsule of fibroelastic tissue and is attached to twin crura.Crura: Two trunks of the clitoris that separate and join at the pubic arch and attached the clitoris to the pubic bone.
20Female Genital Cutting Sunna refers to removal of the clitoral hood (prepuce), not the clitoris, and is the only procedure that could legitimately be called “female circumcision.”Excision (clitoridectomy) refers to complete removal of the clitoris and perhaps some of the inner lips.The most extreme form of FGM is infibulation, which involves removal of the clitoris, all of the inner lips and part of the outer lips.