4What does “gilded” mean? A cheaper material, typically wood, covered or highlighted with gold or something of a golden colorHaving a pleasing or showy appearance that conceals something of little worth
5“Gilded Age” –Post-Reconstruction AmericaPhrase coined by Mark Twain; used to represent America during this time – Why?Also, think of a beautiful, shiny, red apple… that is rotten on the inside
6This was America during this time period (1870-1900) On the outside, golden, shiny, beautiful:Expanding economy, population growthExtravagant displays of wealth by America’s upper class
7Hiding the rotten inside: Political corruption, scandals, greed, child labor, materialism, racial discrimination, etc.
8Discrimination in the South & West IndustrializationImmigrationUrbanizationThe Gilded AgeDiscrimination in the South & WestPopulismPolitical Corruption
9Today….Let’s look at how Industry and technology changed since 1865 to the early 1900s!
10Changes in Daily Life Life in the 1860s Life in the 1900s No indoor electric lightsNo refrigerationNo indoor plumbingKerosene or wood to heatWood stoves to cook withHorse and buggyIn 1860, most mail from the East Coast took ten days to reach the Midwest and three weeks to get to the West Coast.A letter from Europe to a person on the frontier could take several months to reach its destination.Life in the 1900sUS Govt issued 500,000 patents—electricityRefrigerated railroad carsSewer systems and sanitationIncreased productivity made live easier and comfortable.Power stations, electricity for lamps, fans, printing presses, appliances, typewriters, etc.New York to San Francisco to 10 days using railroad.1.5 million telephones in use all over the countryWestern Union Telegraph was sending thousands of messages daily throughout the country.
11Capital (gold, silver and banking) US Government support FACTORS FOR INDUSTRIAL GROWTHNatural ResourcesCapital (gold, silver and banking)US Government supportDesire: Creative inventors and industrialistsTransportation SystemLabor force (immigrants)
12Industrialization We are seeing increases in: Coal mining Iron industryOil fieldsRailroadsSawmillsNew agricultural techniquesEtc.This will later lead us to the creation of the Rust Belt and Sun Belt
21“The Wedding of the Rails” Central Pacific and Union Pacific 1st TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROADMay 10, 1869 at Promontory, Utah“The Wedding of the Rails”Central Pacific and Union Pacific
22BESSEMER PROCESS New Uses for Steel In 1856 Henry Bessemer devised a way of converting iron into steel on a large scale.His invention involved blowing air through molten iron in a converter, or furnace, in order to burn off the excess carbon.Before the Bessemer process, iron was hardened into steel at the rate of 3 to 5 tons a day; now the same amount could be processed in 15 minutesHis invention revolutionized the Industrial Age.New Uses for SteelSteel used in railroads, barbed wire, farm machinesChanges construction: Brooklyn Bridge; steel-framed skyscrapers
23With the Bessemer Process and Carnegie steel, Skyscrapers revolutionized the building industry….. Major city skylines would be dotted with this new type of building as the 1900’s begin.
24Expansion of Railroads 1869, 30,000 miles of track1900, 200,000 miles of trackDistribution System to the marketplaceSymbol of growth
25RAILROAD INDUSTRY By 1900 there were 193,000 miles of railroad. What helped the railroad industry prosper?Bessemer ProcessWestinghouse Air BrakesSteel RailsStandard GaugePullman Cars
26Between 1800 to 1900, US Govt. issued 500,000 patents KEY INVENTIONSBETWEEN 1860 TO 1900ElevatorBessemer ProcessSewing MachineDynamiteTypewriterLevi Blue Jeans/BasketballTelephonePhonographLight bulb and cash registerZipperGasoline automobile and skyscraperNew York City---first city to have electricity--1890RadioSubwayX-rayBetween 1800 to 1900, US Govt. issued 500,000 patents
27Some other inventions created during Gilded Age Cola-Cola (1886)Streetcars (1888)Record Player (1877)Skyscraper (1885)Airplane (1903)
29“Wizard of Menlo Park”Edison Inventions helped to shape modern societyMore than 1,000 inventions patentedLight bulbPhonographIncandescent electric lampStarter for automobiles that eliminated hand crankBatteriesPerfected stock tickerNew York City first city to powered by electricityThe motion picture camera and projectorFirst used “hello” as phone greetingHelped Alexander G. Bell with the telephone
39U. S. Patents Granted 1790s 276 patents issued.
40NEW STORESBETWEEN 1860 TO 1900Specialty stores----sold single line of goodsDepartment stores---combined specialty storesChain stores---stores with branches in citiesMail catalog storesNew ways to advertiseMontgomery Wards, J.C. Penney, Macy’s, Sears and Roebuck and Woolworths
41Causes of Rapid Industrialization Steam Revolution of the 1830s-1850s.The Railroad fueled the growing US economy:First big business in the US.A magnet for financial investment.The key to opening the West.Aided the development of other industries.
42Causes of Rapid Industrialization Technological innovations.Bessemer and open hearth processRefrigerated carsEdison“Wizard of Menlo Park”light bulb, phonograph, motion pictures.
43Causes of Rapid Industrialization Unskilled & semi-skilled labor in abundance.Abundant capital.New, talented group of businessmen [entrepreneurs] and advisors.Market growing as US population increased.Government willing to help at all levels to stimulate economic growth (government intervened).Abundant natural resources.