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Warm Up Describe these images.. Unit 5: The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era (1870-1920)

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up Describe these images.. Unit 5: The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era (1870-1920)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up Describe these images.

2 Unit 5: The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era ( )

3 The Gilded Age

4 What does “gilded” mean? A cheaper material, typically wood, covered or highlighted with gold or something of a golden color Having a pleasing or showy appearance that conceals something of little worth

5 “Gilded Age” – Post-Reconstruction America Phrase coined by Mark Twain; used to represent America during this time – Why? Also, think of a beautiful, shiny, red apple… that is rotten on the inside

6 This was America during this time period ( ) On the outside, golden, shiny, beautiful: Expanding economy, population growth Extravagant displays of wealth by America’s upper class

7 Hiding the rotten inside: Political corruption, scandals, greed, child labor, materialism, racial discrimination, etc.

8 The Gilded Age Industrialization Immigration Urbanization Discrimination in the South & West Political Corruption Populism

9 Today…. Let’s look at how Industry and technology changed since 1865 to the early 1900s!

10 Life in the 1860s No indoor electric lights No refrigeration No indoor plumbing Kerosene or wood to heat Wood stoves to cook with Horse and buggy In 1860, most mail from the East Coast took ten days to reach the Midwest and three weeks to get to the West Coast. A letter from Europe to a person on the frontier could take several months to reach its destination. Life in the 1900s US Govt issued 500,000 patents—electricity Refrigerated railroad cars Sewer systems and sanitation Increased productivity made live easier and comfortable. Power stations, electricity for lamps, fans, printing presses, appliances, typewriters, etc. New York to San Francisco to 10 days using railroad. 1.5 million telephones in use all over the country Western Union Telegraph was sending thousands of messages daily throughout the country.

11 Natural Resources Capital (gold, silver and banking) US Government support Desire: Creative inventors and industrialists Transportation System Labor force (immigrants)

12 Industrialization We are seeing increases in: -Coal mining -Iron industry -Oil fields -Railroads -Sawmills -New agricultural techniques -Etc. This will later lead us to the creation of the Rust Belt and Sun Belt

13 Oil Mining Sugar Steel Meatpacking Beef/Cattle Construction Telegraph Telephone Railroad Marketing Sewing Machine Vacuums Typewriters Automobile Salt Coal Agricultural

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18 America’s economy grew by more than 400% between 1860 and 1900

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21 May 10, 1869 at Promontory, Utah “The Wedding of the Rails” Central Pacific and Union Pacific May 10, 1869 at Promontory, Utah “The Wedding of the Rails” Central Pacific and Union Pacific

22  In 1856 Henry Bessemer devised a way of converting iron into steel on a large scale.  His invention involved blowing air through molten iron in a converter, or furnace, in order to burn off the excess carbon.  Before the Bessemer process, iron was hardened into steel at the rate of 3 to 5 tons a day; now the same amount could be processed in 15 minutes  His invention revolutionized the Industrial Age. New Uses for Steel  Steel used in railroads, barbed wire, farm machines  Changes construction: Brooklyn Bridge; steel- framed skyscrapers  In 1856 Henry Bessemer devised a way of converting iron into steel on a large scale.  His invention involved blowing air through molten iron in a converter, or furnace, in order to burn off the excess carbon.  Before the Bessemer process, iron was hardened into steel at the rate of 3 to 5 tons a day; now the same amount could be processed in 15 minutes  His invention revolutionized the Industrial Age. New Uses for Steel  Steel used in railroads, barbed wire, farm machines  Changes construction: Brooklyn Bridge; steel- framed skyscrapers

23  With the Bessemer Process and Carnegie steel, Skyscrapers revolutionized the building industry…..  Major city skylines would be dotted with this new type of building as the 1900’s begin.

24 Expansion of Railroads 1869, 30,000 miles of track 1900, 200,000 miles of track Distribution System to the marketplace Symbol of growth

25 Pullman Cars By 1900 there were 193,000 miles of railroad. What helped the railroad industry prosper? Bessemer Process Westinghouse Air Brakes Steel Rails Standard Gauge By 1900 there were 193,000 miles of railroad. What helped the railroad industry prosper? Bessemer Process Westinghouse Air Brakes Steel Rails Standard Gauge

26 BETWEEN 1860 TO 1900 Elevator Bessemer Process Sewing Machine Dynamite Typewriter Levi Blue Jeans/Basketball Telephone Phonograph Light bulb and cash register Zipper Gasoline automobile and skyscraper New York City---first city to have electricity Radio Subway X-ray Between 1800 to 1900, US Govt. issued 500,000 patents

27 Some other inventions created during Gilded Age Cola-Cola (1886) Streetcars (1888) Record Player (1877) Skyscraper (1885) Airplane (1903)

28 Thomas Alva Edison “Wizard of Menlo Park”

29 Edison Inventions helped to shape modern society More than 1,000 inventions patented Light bulb Phonograph Incandescent electric lamp Starter for automobiles that eliminated hand crank Batteries Perfected stock ticker New York City first city to powered by electricity The motion picture camera and projector First used “hello” as phone greeting Helped Alexander G. Bell with the telephone Edison Inventions helped to shape modern society More than 1,000 inventions patented Light bulb Phonograph Incandescent electric lamp Starter for automobiles that eliminated hand crank Batteries Perfected stock ticker New York City first city to powered by electricity The motion picture camera and projector First used “hello” as phone greeting Helped Alexander G. Bell with the telephone “Wizard of Menlo Park”

30 The Light Bulb

31 The Phonograph (1877)

32 The Ediphone or Dictaphone

33 The Motion Picture Camera

34 Alexander Graham Bell Telephone (1876)

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36 The Airplane Wilbur Wright Orville Wright Kitty Hawk, NC – December 7, 1903

37 Model T Automobile Henry Ford I want to pay my workers so that they can afford my product! Henry Ford I want to pay my workers so that they can afford my product!

38 “Model T” Prices & Sales

39 U. S. Patents Granted 1790s  276 patents issued. 1990s  1,119,220 patents issued.

40 BETWEEN 1860 TO 1900 Specialty stores----sold single line of goods Department stores---combined specialty stores Chain stores---stores with branches in cities Mail catalog stores New ways to advertise Montgomery Wards, J.C. Penney, Macy’s, Sears and Roebuck and Woolworths

41 Causes of Rapid Industrialization 1.Steam Revolution of the 1830s-1850s. 2.The Railroad fueled the growing US economy:  First big business in the US.  A magnet for financial investment.  The key to opening the West.  Aided the development of other industries. 1.Steam Revolution of the 1830s-1850s. 2.The Railroad fueled the growing US economy:  First big business in the US.  A magnet for financial investment.  The key to opening the West.  Aided the development of other industries.

42 Causes of Rapid Industrialization 3.Technological innovations.  Bessemer and open hearth process  Refrigerated cars  Edison o “Wizard of Menlo Park” o light bulb, phonograph, motion pictures. 3.Technological innovations.  Bessemer and open hearth process  Refrigerated cars  Edison o “Wizard of Menlo Park” o light bulb, phonograph, motion pictures.

43 4.Unskilled & semi-skilled labor in abundance. 5.Abundant capital. 6.New, talented group of businessmen [entrepreneurs] and advisors. 7.Market growing as US population increased. 8.Government willing to help at all levels to stimulate economic growth (government intervened). 9.Abundant natural resources. 4.Unskilled & semi-skilled labor in abundance. 5.Abundant capital. 6.New, talented group of businessmen [entrepreneurs] and advisors. 7.Market growing as US population increased. 8.Government willing to help at all levels to stimulate economic growth (government intervened). 9.Abundant natural resources. Causes of Rapid Industrialization


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