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Warm Up Describe these images..

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up Describe these images.."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up Describe these images.

2 Unit 5: The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era (1870-1920)

3 The Gilded Age

4 What does “gilded” mean?
A cheaper material, typically wood, covered or highlighted with gold or something of a golden color Having a pleasing or showy appearance that conceals something of little worth

5 “Gilded Age” – Post-Reconstruction America Phrase coined by Mark Twain; used to represent America during this time – Why? Also, think of a beautiful, shiny, red apple… that is rotten on the inside

6 This was America during this time period (1870-1900)
On the outside, golden, shiny, beautiful: Expanding economy, population growth Extravagant displays of wealth by America’s upper class

7 Hiding the rotten inside:
Political corruption, scandals, greed, child labor, materialism, racial discrimination, etc.

8 Discrimination in the South & West
Industrialization Immigration Urbanization The Gilded Age Discrimination in the South & West Populism Political Corruption

9 Today…. Let’s look at how Industry and technology changed since 1865 to the early 1900s!

10 Changes in Daily Life Life in the 1860s Life in the 1900s
No indoor electric lights No refrigeration No indoor plumbing Kerosene or wood to heat Wood stoves to cook with Horse and buggy In 1860, most mail from the East Coast took ten days to reach the Midwest and three weeks to get to the West Coast. A letter from Europe to a person on the frontier could take several months to reach its destination. Life in the 1900s US Govt issued 500,000 patents—electricity Refrigerated railroad cars Sewer systems and sanitation Increased productivity made live easier and comfortable. Power stations, electricity for lamps, fans, printing presses, appliances, typewriters, etc. New York to San Francisco to 10 days using railroad. 1.5 million telephones in use all over the country Western Union Telegraph was sending thousands of messages daily throughout the country.

11 Capital (gold, silver and banking) US Government support
FACTORS FOR INDUSTRIAL GROWTH Natural Resources Capital (gold, silver and banking) US Government support Desire: Creative inventors and industrialists Transportation System Labor force (immigrants)

12 Industrialization We are seeing increases in: Coal mining
Iron industry Oil fields Railroads Sawmills New agricultural techniques Etc. This will later lead us to the creation of the Rust Belt and Sun Belt

13 NEW INDUSTRIES Oil Mining Sugar Steel Meatpacking Beef/Cattle
Construction Telegraph Telephone Railroad Marketing Sewing Machine Vacuums Typewriters Automobile Salt Coal Agricultural





18 America’s economy grew
by more than 400% between 1860 and 1900



21 “The Wedding of the Rails” Central Pacific and Union Pacific
1st TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD May 10, 1869 at Promontory, Utah “The Wedding of the Rails” Central Pacific and Union Pacific

22 BESSEMER PROCESS New Uses for Steel
In 1856 Henry Bessemer devised a way of converting iron into steel on a large scale. His invention involved blowing air through molten iron in a converter, or furnace, in order to burn off the excess carbon. Before the Bessemer process, iron was hardened into steel at the rate of 3 to 5 tons a day; now the same amount could be processed in 15 minutes His invention revolutionized the Industrial Age. New Uses for Steel Steel used in railroads, barbed wire, farm machines Changes construction: Brooklyn Bridge; steel-framed skyscrapers

23 With the Bessemer Process and Carnegie steel, Skyscrapers revolutionized the building industry…..
Major city skylines would be dotted with this new type of building as the 1900’s begin.

24 Expansion of Railroads
1869, 30,000 miles of track 1900, 200,000 miles of track Distribution System to the marketplace Symbol of growth

25 RAILROAD INDUSTRY By 1900 there were 193,000 miles of railroad.
What helped the railroad industry prosper? Bessemer Process Westinghouse Air Brakes Steel Rails Standard Gauge Pullman Cars

26 Between 1800 to 1900, US Govt. issued 500,000 patents
KEY INVENTIONS BETWEEN 1860 TO 1900 Elevator Bessemer Process Sewing Machine Dynamite Typewriter Levi Blue Jeans/Basketball Telephone Phonograph Light bulb and cash register Zipper Gasoline automobile and skyscraper New York City---first city to have electricity--1890 Radio Subway X-ray Between 1800 to 1900, US Govt. issued 500,000 patents

27 Some other inventions created during Gilded Age
Cola-Cola (1886) Streetcars (1888) Record Player (1877) Skyscraper (1885) Airplane (1903)

28 Thomas Alva Edison “Wizard of Menlo Park”

29 “Wizard of Menlo Park” Edison Inventions helped to shape modern society More than 1,000 inventions patented Light bulb Phonograph Incandescent electric lamp Starter for automobiles that eliminated hand crank Batteries Perfected stock ticker New York City first city to powered by electricity The motion picture camera and projector First used “hello” as phone greeting Helped Alexander G. Bell with the telephone

30 The Light Bulb

31 The Phonograph (1877)

32 The Ediphone or Dictaphone

33 The Motion Picture Camera

34 Alexander Graham Bell Telephone (1876)


36 The Airplane Wilbur Wright Orville Wright
Kitty Hawk, NC – December 7, 1903

37 Model T Automobile Henry Ford I want to pay my workers so that they can afford my product!

38 “Model T” Prices & Sales

39 U. S. Patents Granted 1790s  276 patents issued.

40 NEW STORES BETWEEN 1860 TO 1900 Specialty stores----sold single line of goods Department stores---combined specialty stores Chain stores---stores with branches in cities Mail catalog stores New ways to advertise Montgomery Wards, J.C. Penney, Macy’s, Sears and Roebuck and Woolworths

41 Causes of Rapid Industrialization
Steam Revolution of the 1830s-1850s. The Railroad fueled the growing US economy: First big business in the US. A magnet for financial investment. The key to opening the West. Aided the development of other industries.

42 Causes of Rapid Industrialization
Technological innovations. Bessemer and open hearth process Refrigerated cars Edison “Wizard of Menlo Park” light bulb, phonograph, motion pictures.

43 Causes of Rapid Industrialization
Unskilled & semi-skilled labor in abundance. Abundant capital. New, talented group of businessmen [entrepreneurs] and advisors. Market growing as US population increased. Government willing to help at all levels to stimulate economic growth (government intervened). Abundant natural resources.

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