# A special partnership between the Georgia Department of Education and the Educational Technology Training Centers in support of the 8 th Grade Physical.

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A special partnership between the Georgia Department of Education and the Educational Technology Training Centers in support of the 8 th Grade Physical Science Frameworks. Module 2 Energy in our Lives

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science GRADE 8 Unit: Energy in our Lives Science Inquiry All Wired Up!

Standards (Content and Characteristics): S8P5. Students will recognize characteristics of gravity, electricity, and magnetism as major kinds of forces acting in nature. b. Demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of series and parallel circuits and how they transfer energy. S8CS1. Students will explore the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works. a. Understand the importance of and keep honest, clear, and accurate records in science. b. Understand that hypotheses can be valuable even if they turn out not to be completely accurate. S8CS2. Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations. a. Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus. b. Demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations.

Enduring Understandings: Series and parallel circuits can be used to control the amount of electric energy produced. Electric forces arise from the presence of an unbalance in electric charge. An electric circuit allows electrons to flow from a negative pole (excess electrons) to a positive pole (deficient in electrons). Transformation of energy usually releases some energy typically in the form of heat. Essential Question: How are electric circuits wired?

Pre-assessment: Using the pen tool, draw a diagram of a series circuit with two bulbs.

Pre-Assessment: Using the pen tool, draw a diagram of a parallel circuit with two bulbs.

Identify an advantage of a series circuit. A. The light bulbs in a series circuit can be made brighter by adding voltage. B. The light bulbs in a series circuits will all maintain the same brightness no matter how many light bulbs are added.

Identify an advantage of a parallel circuit. A. One bulb can blow out or be removed and the other lights stay on. B. Adding voltage makes the batteries brighter.

Focus These activities should focus on experimenting and exploring electric circuits. Students should approach the activities like engineers and inventors. Students should make predictions, share predictions, and discuss and make a new prediction. There should also be a general class discussion/presentation after each question to clarify the material. The following activities should be done in groups of two

Safety Remind students that objects can get hot when electricity flows through them due to friction. Be careful with the glass light bulbs. Do not use leaky batteries. Have the teacher use the wire strippers when it is necessary

Activity 1 Circuits: Given a AA battery and a cut-apart strand of Christmas light bulbs, light the bulb as many ways as you can. Answer the following: How can you make a complete circuit that will light a bulb? Is electricity flowing through the whole circuit? How do you know? In order to have a complete circuit, what do you need? Does the temperature of the wire, battery or bulb change?

Activity 2 Switches: Answer the following: Why are switches important? How can you turn the current off and on in an electric circuit? Given a battery, a cut-apart Christmas light, a switch and extra wire, use the switch to turn the light off and on in the circuit. Show and explain what you did to include the switch in the circuit.

Activity 3 Series and Parallel Circuits: Given two batteries, two cut-apart Christmas bulbs and extra wire. Answer the following: Can you build a circuit where if one bulb is removed, then the other bulb will go out? Can you build a circuit where if one bulb is removed, then the other bulb will stay lit? Does the brightness of the bulbs change in the two circuits? If so, how? Can you trace the path of the current in the circuits? Draw diagrams that trace the path of the current in each circuit. Label the diagrams appropriately as series and parallel circuits. Compare and contrast the two types of circuits.

Activity 4 Transformation of Electrical Energy: Given a buzzer, add it to the circuits you built in Activity 3. Answer the following: Which of the two circuits is most appropriate for wiring a buzzer? Why?

Final Concept Activity: Design, construct, decorate and wire a shoebox that represents one room of a house. The room should have at least one of the following: - a series circuit - a parallel circuit - switch - light - a resistor (buzzer, motor, etc. are optional) After you have built your room, you will need to explain how the electrical energy is being transferred and transformed throughout the house.

Teacher Reflection What were the "Big Concepts" at each station? How will students make sense of these concepts? Discuss real-world examples that may reinforce students' understanding. Homework, accommodations for students with disabilities, gifted students, ELL What other standards and elements might one introduce at this time to unify the concepts? What are some common student misconceptions and how can these activities facilitate the student’s proper conception and understanding?

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