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Measuring in Competitive Sports and Coaching

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1 Measuring in Competitive Sports and Coaching
Chapter 12 Measuring in Competitive Sports and Coaching

2 Impact of Measurement on Sports
Equipment requirements for different groups increase a sport’s expense. Rule changes make recordkeeping difficult. Logistics can be complicated if different equipment has to be available and moved into place as needed.

3 Measurement Challenges in Competitive Sport
Training for officiating: How can we make sure that judges and officials are valid, reliable, and objective? Discarding scores (highest and lowest) Rules and rule changes Changes to the structure of competitions and to athletes

4 Your Viewpoint What are examples of measurement issues that you’ve observed in sporting events? Did these issues affect the outcome of a game or event? What solutions would you recommend to address these issues?

5 Measuring in Coaching, Teaching, and Training
Coach: Select the best team possible, adjust strategy for maximum benefit, and teach others to enjoy the game (regardless of outcome). Teacher: Assess and motivate students. Trainers and therapists: Evaluate injuries and capabilities, give athletes exercise prescriptions and motivate them to complete rehab programs, evaluate efficacy of a treatment.

6 Coaches and Measurement
Formative and summative evaluations: Formative: Measure and evaluate players during practice and during games. Summative: Pick the starting team and select award recipients. Quantitative and qualitative measures: Quantitative: Scoring, general performance, skill ability Qualitative: Coachability, leadership, and determination

7 Measuring Recruits— Professional Sport
Spend time and effort examining every aspect of a potential investment Conduct various tests: Combine: Tryout to determine which prospects to draft Post-combine performance testing Tests of specific skills

8 NFL Drafting Test 50-item Wonderlic intelligence test
Height and weight measurements 225-lb. bench press Standing broad jump 40-yard dash Shuttle run Vertical jump

9 Measuring Recruits— College Sport
Analyze films and reports from high school coaches Test students at football summer camp Consider factors not related to athletic performance: Academics Attitude Cooperation/coachability

10 Film Analysis Form for Evaluating a Defensive Team

11 Your Viewpoint Pretend you are a college coach recruiting for a particular sport. What key qualities do you want to see in the athletes you are recruiting? How would you measure or evaluate those qualities in your recruits?

12 Measuring in Athletic Training
Modern medical measurements: Previously, only X-rays Now, new equipment (CT scans, MRIs), faster laboratory results, and an abundance of data Technology offers new treatment modalities (continued)

13 Measuring in Athletic Training (continued)
Using standard scores: Comparison to a norm (e.g., other athletes) or to some criterion (e.g., an uninvolved body part) Assessing hydration status: Challenge to trainers A rapid change in body weight—only practical method for measuring Assessing potential for heat injuries

14 Assessing Potential for Heat Injuries
Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Globe temperature Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT): Weighted average of the other temperatures

15 Calculating WBGT WGBT = 0.7 * wet bulb temperature * dry bulb temperature * globe temperature If a wet bulb reading is 30º C, dry bulb is 35º C, and globe reading is 38º C: (30 * 0.7) + (35 * 0.2) + (38 * 0.1) = = 31.8º C

16 Calculating a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature

17 Significance of Three Weighted Measurements
“Hotness” of a day: Combination of air temperature, humidity, and wind WBGT reflects all three factors Wet bulb temperature (body’s heat loss through sweat evaporation) is most important; makes up 70% of WBGT.

18 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature— Risk for Running

19 WBGT and Various Athletes
Football players: Need to make an adjustment to the measured WBGT to account for heavy clothing and equipment. Young athletes: Be alert for heat-related symptoms, offer rest periods and plenty of fluids. WGBT at or above 85º F or 29.4 º C: All outdoor athletic activities should be prohibited.

20 Measuring in Hunting and Fishing
Measure weight or length Big game animals: Measure body weight and points

21 Measuring Multisport Competitions
Biathlons and triathlons Perhaps the greatest measurement challenge in sports: Course set-ups affect which group of athletes will be favored; e.g., longer swim vs. longer run portion Comparison of times difficult among events on different courses

22 Advances in Sport Measurement
Instant replay Electronic timing Videography Biomechanical analysis Biomechanical measurements

23 Testing for Illicit Substances
Alcohol testing: Field performance tests, breathalyzers, blood alcohol tests Drug testing: Blood samples, urinalysis, hair samples, saliva

24 Illicit Substances Used by Athletes and Employees
NCAA’s list of banned drugs: Substances commonly tested for in employment drug tests: Alcohol Marijuana Cocaine Amphetamines Opiates PCP GHB

25 Possible Outcomes of Drug Tests
Valid and desirable: True positive True negative Not desirable: False positive False negative Sensitivity: Probability of a positive test among people with a condition. Specificity: Probability of a negative test among those who do not have the condition.

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