# Unit 6: Atmosphere Interactions and Weather At the end of this unit you will be able to  Calculate: Dewpoint and Relative Humidity  Read and Interpret.

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Unit 6: Atmosphere Interactions and Weather At the end of this unit you will be able to  Calculate: Dewpoint and Relative Humidity  Read and Interpret Charts in Reference Tables  Determine the height of a cloud base using a graph  Read and create station models  List the characteristics of Pressure zones, and fronts  Create synoptic maps

Laboratory Activities for this unit:  Measuring Dewpoint and Relative Humidity  Dewpoint and Cloud Formation  Hurricane Floyd  Station models  Climactic factors: Mountains and Rainfall  Coastal Vs. Continental

 Prevailing wind: Winds that usually blow from a certain direction all year  Wind: horizontal movement of air in the atmosphere  Isobar: A line that connects equal air pressure

 Barometer: instrument used to measure air pressure  Air pressure/ Barometric pressure: weight of the air above you  Jet Stream: Winds at the top of the troposphere

 Anemometer: instrument used to measure wind speed  Evaporation: change of a liquid to a gas, water into the atmosphere  Evapotranspiration: evaporation of water from plants, water into the atmosphere

 Visibility: the farthest distance you can see  Precipitation: water coming out of the atmosphere in the form of liquid or solid  Condensation: water vapor turning to liquid water to form clouds

 Dewpoint: temperature at which dew (condensation) forms  Relative Humidity: what percent of the air is water  Psychrometer: instrument used to measure relative humidity and dewpoint

 Air mass: body of air in the troposphere with the same temperature and humidity  Cyclone: Low pressure system, counterclockwise and towards the center, aka, a Low pressure center  Front: an interface between two different air masses

 Isotherm: a line that connects equal temperatures  Climate: overall conditions of a regions weather  Insolation: Incoming Solar Radiation, sunlight  Coriolis Effect: deflection of winds and ocean currents based on the rotation of the earth.

 Storm: a violent disturbance in the atmosphere  Hurricane/Typhoon: a large Low pressure that forms over warm water, with winds over 74 miles per hour

I. Interactions in our atmosphere A. Density of air 1. As temp , it takes up more space (expands) volume , density 

Analogy: Dancing, as you dance you get hotter so you move away from each other and take up more space.

I. Interactions in our atmosphere B. Wind 1. caused by density differences (different air pressure) a. unequal heating of the earth’s surface 1. poles = low temperature 2. equator = higher temperature

The equator gets direct light and that makes it warmer The poles get less direct light and that makes them cooler

Wind is caused by differences in pressure because land and water do not heat up at the same rate

During the day land heats up faster causing a low pressure over the land and high pressure over the water At night the water is warmer and a low pressure is found over it where the land is cooler and has a high pressure

REMEMBER: EVERYTHING FLOWS FROM HIGHS TO LOWS INCLUDING PRESSURE

I. Interactions in our atmosphere Wind Analogy You go to Sea Breeze during the day

I. Interactions in our atmosphere 3. (p 14), ESRT, Wind pattern chart

The purple arrows indicate cold air sinking a high pressure zone an area of convergence The light green arrows indicate warm air rising a low pressure zone of divergence On your ESRT draw in the Highs and Lows and label with blue the areas of high pressure and in red the areas of low pressure

I. Interactions in our atmosphere C. Water into our atmosphere 1. evaporation rates

I. Interactions in our atmosphere Analogy: Surface area- wadded up towel versus a towel hanging on the rack Analogy: Windspeed- A blow dryer on low or on high Analogy: Temperature: a blow dryer on hot or cool

I. Interactions in our atmosphere D. Water out of the atmosphere 1. Condensation: process by which water vapor is turned into a liquid. a. energy is released, heat is given off

I. Interactions in our atmosphere D. Water out of the atmosphere 2. Precipitation: clouds fill with water droplets (saturated) and cannot hold anymore and they fall to earth. a. Types: rain, hail, snow, freezing rain, sleet

5. Dewpoint (  F): point at which clouds (dew) forms a. p. 12, ESRT b. Dry bulb = air temp AS air rises it cools and when the air condenses a cloud forms, we say that the dewpoint has been reached

Wet bulb.. Has a sock over the end of the thermometer Dry bulb… just a regular thermometer

6. Relative humidity: a. amount of moisture (water vapor ) in the air, b. Measured in %. c. Use a sling psychrometer

3 things you need to have clouds: 1.Water vapor 2.Condensation Nuclei 3.Temperature to cool off & hit the DEW POINT!

Cloud types Alto Cumulus Fair weather Cumulus Big and puffy

Cirrostratus Cirrus Cloud types

These clouds cover the entire sky In Syracuse we typically have these clouds all winter long

Cloud types These are thunderstorm clouds, notice the anviling This is caused by high winds that pull the top of the cloud Nimbus means: RAIN

As you go up there is less air so the cloud expands

Practice: 1. Dry bulb = 12°C Wet bulb = 10°C DP = ? Cloud height= ?

Practice: 1. Dry bulb = 12°C Wet bulb = 10°C DP = 8°C Cloud height= ?

Practice: 1. Dry bulb = 12°C Wet bulb = 10°C DP = 8°C Cloud height=0.5 km

2. Dry bulb = 22°C Wet bulb = 17°C DP = ? Cloud height = ?

2. Dry bulb = 22°C Wet bulb = 17°C DP = 14°C Cloud height = ?

2. Dry bulb = 22°C Wet bulb = 17°C DP = 14°C Cloud height = 1.0 km

3. Dry bulb = 30°C Wet bulb = 24 °C DP = ? Cloud height = ?

3. Dry bulb = 30°C Wet bulb = 24 °C DP = 21°C Cloud height = ?

3. Dry bulb = 30°C Wet bulb = 24°C DP = 21°C Cloud height = 1.1 km

Weather 3

II. Weather and Our Atmosphere A.Weather: observations based on air temperature, dewpoint, humidity, cloud cover, wind, etc… at a certain time and location.

B. Page 13, ESRT Station Models

Station model map NY State Station model map

II. Weather and Our atmosphere B. Page 13, ESRT Station Models 1. Temperature F  C use thermometers above.

II. Weather and Our Atmosphere 1. Wind direction, the place where the tail is pointing (named by where it comes from)

II. Weather and Our Atmosphere 2. Wind speed: how many feathers are on the tail a. whole = 10 knots b. half = 5 knots (always in 5’s)

II. Weather and Our Atmosphere c. Knots to MPH 1. 20 knots x 1.15 mph = ___________ 2. 15 Knots = _______mph 3.______ knots = 51.75 mph

II. Weather and Our Atmosphere 4. Barometric Pressure (air pressure) a.Decoding adds a 10 or a 9 in front and places a decimal in between the last 2 numbers. b. 9 in front if the value are more than 500, 10 in front if the value is less than 500

4. Barometric Pressure (air pressure) c. Examples 1. 825 = ________ 2. 426 = ________ 3. 922 = ________ II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

4. Barometric Pressure (air pressure) d. Millibars  Inches 1. Use the chart on page 13, ESRT 2. 1000.0 mb =______inches 3. ______ mb = 29.96 inches II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

4. Barometric Pressure (air pressure) e. Isobars: lines that show equal barometric pressure 1. When the lines are close together = fast wind, linesare far apart = slow wind. II. Weather and Our Atmosphere Isobaric contour map

4. Barometric Pressure (air pressure) f. Measure pressure with a barometer 1. pressure above 1013.2 is considered HIGH pressure a. Dry, cold air II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

4. Barometric Pressure (air pressure) 1. Pressure below 1013.2 is considered LOW pressure. a. moist, warm air II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

5. Dewpoint (  F): point at which clouds (dew) forms a. p. 12, ESRT b. Dry bulb = air temp AS air rises it cools and when the air condenses a cloud forms, we say that the dewpoint has been reached

6. Relative humidity: a. amount of moisture (water vapor ) in the air, b. Measured in %. c. Use a sling psychrometer

7. Precipitation a. 3 things you need to have 1. Water vapor 2. Condensation nuclei, something to form on 3.Cooling air II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

C. Air Masses 1.Humidity (lower case letter) a.over water = moist and maritime b.over land = dry and continental II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

C. Air Masses 2. Temperature ( Capital letter) a.Polar = cold, near polar areas b. Tropical = warm/ hot, near the equator, tropical areas II. Weather and Our Atmosphere Air mass animation

D. Air masses and Pressure Zones 1. Warm air, rises, low pressure, counter clockwise,moist, below 1013.2 mb. II. Weather and Our Atmosphere Pressure animation

D. Air masses and Pressure Zones 2. Cold air, sinks, high pressure, clockwise, dry,above 1013.2 mb. II. Weather and Our Atmosphere Pressure animation

Remember Clocks are always high on the wall, so….High rotates clockwise Or Left hand rule!

D. Air masses and Pressure Zones 3. Low pressure air goes into the center 4. High-pressure air goes out away from the center. II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

E. Air Masses and Boundaries 1. Front is an edge of an on coming air mass II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

E. Air Masses and Boundaries 2. 4 types a.Cold, air sinks, High Pressure, FAST, close to the ground, narrow band of rain. II. Weather and Our Atmosphere cold front animation

E. Air Masses and Boundaries 2. 4 types b. Warm; air rises, Low pressure, slow, wide band ofrain. II. Weather and Our Atmosphere warm front animation

E. Air Masses and Boundaries 2. 4 types c. Stationary, warm and cold fronts battling, both travelling in opposite directions II. Weather and Our Atmosphere Stationary front animation

E. Air Masses and Boundaries 2. 4 types d. Occluded, warm front caught between 2 cold fronts. II. Weather and Our Atmosphere occluded front animation

National Weather Map Current II. Weather and Our Atmosphere

I. Interactions in our atmosphere 3.water vapor , less dense DEMO ___________________

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