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PART II: Body Composition & Weight. II. BODY COMPOSITION A. Body Fat: Amt. Determined by SIZE & NUMBER of Fat Cells - ADIPOCYTES This Number is fixed.

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Presentation on theme: "PART II: Body Composition & Weight. II. BODY COMPOSITION A. Body Fat: Amt. Determined by SIZE & NUMBER of Fat Cells - ADIPOCYTES This Number is fixed."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART II: Body Composition & Weight

2 II. BODY COMPOSITION A. Body Fat: Amt. Determined by SIZE & NUMBER of Fat Cells - ADIPOCYTES This Number is fixed by Adulthood B. Fat-Free Weight (FFW) LEAN- BODY MASS LEAN- BODY MASS: Skeletal Muscles Bones, Organs, other tissue Lean Body Mass still includes some fat for structures- cell membranes, nerves, etc.- but NOT fat Storage

3 LEAN BODY MASS- FFW Ave% = 85% Men, 75% Women by WT Ave% = 85% Men, 75% Women by WT AID to PERFORMANCE! AID to PERFORMANCE! If Weight Bearing or Movement is Important, LBW/FFW is Critical If Weight Bearing or Movement is Important, LBW/FFW is Critical More Muscle = More Force More Muscle = More Force Muscle Type Determines Exposiveness Muscle Type Determines Exposiveness

4 BODY FAT Ave % : Men = 15%, Women: 25% by Wgt. Ave % : Men = 15%, Women: 25% by Wgt. Athletes = LOWER (6-9% Marathon) Athletes = LOWER (6-9% Marathon) NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY FAT AND PERFORMANCE! NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY FAT AND PERFORMANCE! EXCESS BODY FAT = WEIGHT ONLY! EXCESS BODY FAT = WEIGHT ONLY!

5 Usual Methods Best to Least Accurate Best to Least Accurate 1. Hydrostatic Weighing - Most Accurate but - Most Accurate but Expensive and Impractical in the Field Expensive and Impractical in the Field 2. Skin Fold Caliper - Acceptable Field Base Electronic/Manual, (Tatoos) ASSESSMENT of Body Fat

6 Skin Fold Caliper Best Known Method for Body Composition Estimates % of Body Fat from Subcutaneous Fat measures as determined by the: SKINFOLD THICKNESS (mm) Use SKINFOLD CALIPERS- Triceps, Scapula, Abdomen

7 Hydrostatic Weighing DIFFICULT but MOST ACCURATE Measure total body weight under water Determine Density of weight- Estimates % Body FAT from knowing Density Fat is less dense than Muscle DENSITY = Mass per Unit Volume D = M/V ex. sand in water

8 ANTHROPOMETRIC Measures + formulas Chest Width/ Chest Depth/ Wrist Width/Ht/Wt Estimate Minimal Weight Requirements 1. Tcheng/Tipton Method - Research based on Wrestlers- ANTHROPOMETRICS: Chest Width/ Chest Depth/ Wrist Width/Ht/Wt 2. Lohman - Skin Folds (less Accurate) Predicting IDEAL Weight

9 Energy- Balance Issues ENERGY BALANCE: FOOD INTAKE = ENERGY OUTPUT POSITVE BALANCE: INTAKE is GREATER than OUTPUT NEGATIVE BALANCE: OUTPUT is GREATER than INTAKE

10 Sound Nutritional Diet and ENDURANCE Work Sound Nutritional Diet and ENDURANCE Work NO PROLONGED FASTS! NO PROLONGED FASTS! 1 Estimate Daily Calorie/Work Levels 2 Reduce Intake by Calories = 2/3 lbs per week 3 Exercise the Large Muscles ACSM Weight Loss Guidelines

11 ACSM Weight Gain Guidelines Estimate Daily Calorie/Work Levels Estimate Daily Calorie/Work Levels Increase Intake by Calories Increase Intake by Calories = 2/3 lbs per week = 2/3 lbs per week 6000 calories might be REALISTIC 6000 calories might be REALISTIC Add Calories over MANY Meals Add Calories over MANY Meals Exercise to BUILD MUSCLE Exercise to BUILD MUSCLE

12 Pathogenic Weight Control Most Affected- Gymnists/Wrestlers/Cheerleaders FastingVomiting Fluid Restriction Laxatives Excessive Running Sweating- Dehydration Diet Pills

13 PART III: DEHYDRATION And HEAT PROBLEMS

14 HEAT ILLNESS- A Condition resulting from Increased Body Temp DEHYDRATION A Condition resulting from Excessive Loss of Water

15 Strength Strength Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance Plasma/Blood Volume Plasma/Blood Volume Cardiac Function Cardiac Function Oxygen Consumption Oxygen Consumption Thermoregulatory Function Thermoregulatory Function Renal Blood Flow Renal Blood Flow Glycogen Stores Glycogen Stores Electrolytes Electrolytes ACSM - Dehydration Causes Decreased:

16 Heat Ilness: Heat cramps SYMPTOMS Disabling muscular cramps Disabling muscular cramps ** Heavy Sweating, Fatigue/Nausea ** Heavy Sweating, Fatigue/Nausea Thirst/ Normal BP/ Alert Thirst/ Normal BP/ Alert Normal body temperature or slightly elevated Normal body temperature or slightly elevated Treatment Treatment 4–8 oz of cold water every 10–15 minutes 4–8 oz of cold water every 10–15 minutes avoid caffeine bev. avoid caffeine bev. Move to shade Move to shade Remove as much clothing/ equipment as possible Remove as much clothing/ equipment as possible

17 Heat Ilness : Heat Exhaustion SYMPTOMS Treatment Treatment Give 16 oz of cold water for each pound of weight lost Give 16 oz of cold water for each pound of weight lost Move to a cool place Move to a cool place Remove as much clothing/ equipment as possible Remove as much clothing/ equipment as possible Cool (e.g., with ice baths, ice bags) Cool (e.g., with ice baths, ice bags) *Sweating / Dizziness *Headache- Nausea Confusion *Extreme Weakness Clammy/skin-Flushed Clammy/skin-Flushed Rapid HR/Shallow breathing Rapid HR/ Shallow breathing * Body temperature of 100.4–104ºF

18 Heat Ilness: HEAT STROKE * Shock SYMPTOMS LIFE THREATENING LIFE THREATENING * * Sweating STOPS- Hot DRY SKIN * * Staggering/ Collapse * * Headache- Nausea Confusion- UNCONS * Delirium * Hallucinations * Body temperature 104ºF or GREATER Treatment Treatment Call for emergency medical treatment IV Fluids IV Fluids Cool with ice packs, ice bags, immersion in ice water Cool with ice packs, ice bags, immersion in ice water

19 MEASURING HEAT STRESS Sling Psychrometer - the higher the Temp & the higher the humidity: the greater chance of Dehydration HUMIDITY is the DANGER! TREAT- Water/Clothes Half Time Shower Releif Wetting Down the Sideline

20 Environmental HEAT STRESS SLING PSYCROMETER SLING PSYCROMETER 1. Wet-Bulb Temperature(WBT) 1. Wet-Bulb Temperature(WBT) Measures Relative Humidity & Wind by measuring the rate of evaporation from a wet wick in the thermometer 2. DRY- BULB Temperature(DBT): Measures the actual Air temperature Measures the actual Air temperature

21 WBGT-Index- Assessment of Envir. HEAT STRESS Now---Add the 3. BLACK-BULb Therm. Measures Radiant Heat/Sun Special Formula using the three measures= WB Globe Temp (WBGT) WBT + DBT + BBT= WBGT-Index

22 WBGT: Relative Heat Index MEASURES 1. Dry- Bulb Temperature- Ordinary AIR + 2. Wet- Bulb Temperature-Temp affected by wind and humidity by wind and humidity+ 3. Black- Bulb Temperature- Temp affected by radiant heat from the Sun

23 Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature WBGT Meter, handy and portable digital device, measures and displays WBGT index for- prevention of heat stroke during physical exercise or for evaluation of heat stress in working environment. WBGT index

24 WORK- HEAT Relationship Work HEAT Increases Body Temp High Body Temp SWEAT- cools the skin cools the skin through evaporation through evaporation Must REHYDRATE & REPLACE Body Salts Gatorade is probably the best Ratio

25 * M ANDATE Water at SET TIMES Acclimate Gradually (2 Weeks) ADJUST Practice as Needed (P. 362) * M ANDATE Water at SET TIMES Acclimate Gradually (2 Weeks) ADJUST Practice as Needed (P. 362) WBGT PRECAUTIONS o F CAUTION-Alert to Heat Illness Sx o F Limited Activity for those Acclimated Over 88 o F Activity for all Suspended Prevention of Heat Disorders

26 Guidelines for Athletes 1. Water/Salt Replacement When thirsty - TOO LATE ! Unrestricted /Mandated- Water is Best 2. ACCLIMATIZATION If Well Acclimatated = / Low Salt in Sweat Diet = Best Replacement

27 ACCLIMATIZATION Get Out 2 WEEKS Before Practice Work in HEAT of Day Work at PRACTICE TIMES Work at PRACTICE INTENSITY …BUT… Be PROGRESSIVLY INTENSE! Progress to Full Uniform (State Laws)

28 ZONE 1 ZONE 1 No Problem o F ( Green) ZONE 2 (Yellow) ZONE 2 - Caution, o F Watch Closely (Yellow) ZONE 3 ZONE 3 - SHORTS ONLY! > 89 o F NO UNIFORMS (RED) FOOTBALL: HEAT Guidelines for Play

29 ACSM Running Guidelines NO RACE 10K+ If WET Bulb is F NO RACE 10K+ If WET Bulb is F If >80 0 F, Race Before 9AM or After 4PM If >80 0 F, Race Before 9AM or After 4PM Runners MUST Ingest Water Runners MUST Ingest Water Instruct runners as to Early Signs of Heat Illness Instruct runners as to Early Signs of Heat Illness Have medical Staff Available Have medical Staff Available

30 THE END THE END


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