4 Job Safety Analysis Focusing your Safety and Health Efforts This course will help you to understand and conduct your own Job Safety Analysis. The aim is to help you identify and correct the most serious safety issues facing your particular situation. This course focuses on employee safety and health, but the general method may be applied to other loss prevention efforts (environmental and fire protection, liability, etc.)
5 Job Safety Analysis What is a Job Safety Analysis (JSA) A JSA is a technique of screening job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur.It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools and the work environment.After identifying hazards, you can take steps to eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level.Hazard – a potential for harmA hazard is associated with a condition or activity that, if left uncontrolled, can result in an injury or illness.
6 Why conduct a Job Safety Analysis To become aware of all the hazards associated with each position in your organization.To prevent work related deaths, injuries, or illness by eliminating or controlling hazards identified.To ensure all employees have the proper job procedures to ensure their safety.To ensure all employees have the training, equipment, and supplies to do their jobs safely
7 Hazard AwarenessWhen conducting a Job Safety Analysis you'll need to take a fresh look at the way things are done at your work place. Just because "We've been doing it this way for 20 years," doesn't mean that a hazard doesn't exist. Accepting a risk or hazard is not the same as eliminating or controlling it.You'll need to take a comprehensive look at all possible hazards with an open mind. (We'll suggest a way to rank the hazards later.)
8 How do I Conduct a JSA? Involve your employees in the JSA process. Identify the job or task to be analyzed.Break the job or task into key components.Identify the hazards found in each key component.Use accident history of injuries and “near misses”.Identify ways to eliminate or control these hazards.Act to eliminate the hazard or implement the controls.Record the hazards identified and the steps taken to eliminate or control them.Periodically assess controls to ensure they are working correctly.
9 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Identifying the Job for Analysis Any job or task that meets any of the following conditions should have a JSA conducted for it.Tasks with a history of injuries, or near misses.Catastrophic potential: fire, explosion, chemical release, toxic atmospheres, oxygen deficient atmospheres.Tasks done in new environments
10 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Identifying the Job for Analysis In addition, any job or task that meets any of the following conditions should also have a JSA conducted for it:New people doing the task.Tasks that have changed.Rarely performed jobs.Any task done under a safety "Work permit" condition (e.g. permit required confined space, hot work permits, Lock Out/Tag Out).
11 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Identifying Jobs for a JSA Look at jobs injuring workers using existing information found in:Your accident or incident reportsWorkers' compensation claimsConduct walk through observations to identify hazardous jobs or tasks.
12 Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Existing Information Sources Incident or accident reports will direct you to the jobs that have injured workers in the past.Don’t forget “near misses”.Workers' compensation claims will show you jobs that have caused an injury.
13 Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Walk-through Observations Observe workers doing their jobs to identify potential hazards that may lead to an injury, pay attention to the amount of time the worker is exposed to a particular hazard.Talk with workers to find out what they think is the most hazardous part of their job, ask them if what you observed them doing is typical.
14 Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Hazard Sources - Walk-through Observations Hazards Source ListFall Hazards:Are workers working at heights?Confined Space Entry:Do workers have to enter a confined space?Excavations, Holes or Floor Openings:Can workers fall into or through?Moving Equipment:Is there machinery, forklifts, etc. in the area?Pinch points:Do moving parts in machinery create pinch points? Can workers get caught in machinery or belts & pulleys, chains & sprockets, etc?Chemicals:Do workers use solvents, acids, bases, pesticides, consumer products, etc.?Crushing hazards:Can workers get crushed (under or between) objects?Dusts:Does the process create or are workers exposed to dusts (wood dust, grinding dusts, etc.)?
15 Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Hazard Sources - Walk-through Observations Hazards Source List –con’tElectrical Hazards:What is the condition of your extension cords, wiring, service panels, etc.?Lighting Levels:Is there enough light to do the work?Stored Energy Hazards (Electrical, mechanical, pressure):Can stored energy be released by the work? (Lock-out/Tag-out)Falling or dropping objects:Are people working overhead?Motor vehicles or traffic:Do workers have to drive or work in traffic as part of the job?Sharp objects:Do workers use knives, razors, etc.?Slip, trip or fall hazards:What is the condition of the walking/ working surfaces, housekeeping, etc.?Physical layout of work place:Does the layout or process flow create a hazard?Ladder or Scaffold use:Are ladders or scaffolds used in the work?
16 Hazards Source List –con’t Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Hazard Sources - Walk-through ObservationsHazards Source List –con’tWeather:Can the weather create hazards?Fire/Explosion:Is there a potential for a fire or explosion?Access and Egress:Can workers safely get to their work areas? Can they safely evacuate in the case of an emergency?Process Flow:Does the flow of product through the process create a hazard?Location of co-workers or other workers in the area:Does the work pose a hazard to them, or does their work pose a hazard to the job being analyzed?Human factor issues:Is the training adequate? Are the workers fatigued? How fit are the workers, etc.?Material Moving or Handling:Do workers have to lift or carry heavy objects?Repetitive Motion :Does the job require repetitive motion (typing, etc.)?
17 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Involving Workers and Managers in the JSA Once you have identified jobs needing a JSA, then its time to start conducting the JSA's.Involving employees and area managers in the JSA process allows them to bring their insights on the job to the process.They can help to identify hazards and they will have ownership of the JSA and may more readily accept the findings and hazard controls selected.
18 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Once the job is identified, you must break it into key components or sub-tasks and then identify and list all the hazards associated with each subtask.What can go wrong?What are the consequences?How could a problem happen?How likely is it that the hazard will occur?The following screens will help you break down a job, and identify and rank hazards.
19 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Break Identified Job into KEY Components Too much detail makes the Job Safety Analysis cumbersome. Too Much DetailGet ladder from storage.Get new light bulb from storage.Carry ladder and light bulb to light needing changing.Place ladder under light to be changed.Ensure light switch is in the off position.Climb ladder.Remove light cover.Twist light bulb in a counter clock-wise direction until it is free of the socket. Remove old light bulb.Remove new light bulb from package.Insert new light bulb into socket. Turn in a clock-wise direction until tightened. Replace Cover. Descend ladder.Place old light bulb in trash.Carry ladder back to storage.
20 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Break Identified Job into KEY Components Too little detail may omit hazards.Too Little DetailGet a ladder and new light bulb.Change bulb.Put ladder away and throw out old light bulb.
21 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Break Identified Job into KEY Components The correct amount of detail breaks the job into components that make sense in terms of the overall job.Right Amount of Detail Get ladder and new light bulb.Place ladder under light to be changed. Use ladder, change bulb.Put tools and supplies away.When evaluating a task, such as "changing a light bulb" remember that you do not want too much detail, or too little detail, keep your focus on obtaining the right amount of detail.Generally limit the number of components to 10 or less.
22 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Questions to Ask about each Sub-task This following list of questions is intended to help focus your effort at identifying and controlling hazards.While the list is comprehensive, it is not complete, and you'll need to think about the sub-tasks and the particular hazards they present. Questions to ask …Does the layout of the location or process create hazards, (e.g. pedestrian/fork-lift traffic)?Is there adequate access and egress to and from the work area?Are workers exposed to temperature extremes?Is the lighting adequate?Is the work done outdoors? Can the weather create a hazard?
23 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Questions to Ask about each Sub-task –Con’t Does the task require entering a confined space?Is the work done at heights (from a ladder, roof top, etc.)?Do the tools or equipment create a hazard?Is there excessive noise or vibration?Can any part of the worker's body or clothing be caught in the equipment?Is the tool or equipment appropriate for the task (strength, size, power, etc.)?Are chemicals used?Does the worker come into direct contact with the chemicals?
24 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Questions to Ask about each Sub-task –Con’t Are the chemicals released into the air (gas, mists, vapors, etc.)?Are workers exposed to electrical hazards?Are there excavations, holes, or floor openings in the work area?Are the workers exposed to stored energy hazards such as; line pressure, electricity, steam, or falling objects?Does the process start and stop automatically?Are robotics used in the process?Can human factor issues (training, fitness, fatigue, etc.) create a hazard?Is there risk of injury from material handling such as lifting, carrying, pushing or pulling)?Is there risk of repetitive motion injury?
25 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Ranking Hazardous Tasks Once you've identified the jobs that have the potential to or are in fact injuring workers, you'll need to rank these tasks and start addressing the most serious first. One method for ranking tasks considers the probability of the hazard causing injury, along with an estimate of the severity of the resulting injury. These are not necessarily precise predictions of when and how severe an injury may be, they are an estimate of the outcome and the likelihood of the injury occurring. The next three slides presents this method for ranking hazardous tasks.
26 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks Consider the severity of an injury if something were to go wrong while doing a task. Look at the four categories under "Severity“.Severity4 – Catastrophic, may cause death3 – Critical, may cause serious injury or illness2 – Marginal, may cause minor injury or illness1 – Negligible, will not cause injury or illness
27 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks Next think about how often the worker is exposed to the hazard using the categories found in the "Probability" table. Probability5 – Frequently, likely to occur frequently4 – Probable, will occur several times3 – Occasional, likely to occur2 – Remote, unlikely but possible1 – Improbable, so unlikely it can be assumed that it will not occur
28 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks Multiply the "Severity" rank by the "Probability" rank.Organize the hazardous tasks by their score from highest to lowest, address the highest scored tasks first.This method can help you decide which is more important, an infrequent job that has the potential to kill a worker, or a frequent job that is injuring workers.
29 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis JSA Sample Form
30 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Eliminating or Controlling Hazards Now that you've identified the job and evaluated its sub-tasks and their hazards, you need to identify ways to eliminate or control these hazards.The best method to protect workers is to eliminate the hazard at the source. “Transfer the Risk”If elimination is not possible, control the hazard at its source with engineering controls or limit exposures using administrative controls.If engineering or administrative controls are not enough to reduce the exposure to an acceptable level, personal protective equipment must be used.Personal protective equipment is also used while engineering controls are being installed.
31 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Eliminating Hazards Totally eliminate the hazard or process – mostly unrealisticEngineering Controls - changing the process or re-engineering to eliminate or minimize the hazards.The most effective control measureThe more reliable or less likely a hazard control can be circumvented, the betterIsolate the hazard – enclose a hazardous machineSubstitution - substituting a toxic chemical with one having a lower toxicity
32 Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Eliminating Hazards Administrative Controls –Tighten up procedures and safe work practices including use of hazardous materialsAlarms, signs and warningsTrainingExposure limitations – time limits on hazardous dutiesBuddy systemPersonal Protective Equipment – is acceptable as temporary control methodRespiratorsHearing protectionEye protectionHardhatsProtective clothing including shoes
33 Controlling Hazards Summary If the hazard can not be eliminated, steps must be taken to control the worker's exposure to it through:Engineering ControlsAdministrative ControlsPersonal Protective Equipment (PPE)Combinations of ControlsCombinations of Controls may need to be used if the hazard can't be completely controlled by engineering controls alone.