Presentation on theme: "15/04/2017 Electricity W Richards Worthing High School."— Presentation transcript:
115/04/2017ElectricityW RichardsWorthing High School
2(Words: volts, amps, ohms, voltage, ammeter, voltmeter) Basic ideas…15/04/2017Electric current is when electrons start to flow around a circuit. We use an _________ to measure it and it is measured in ____.Potential difference (also called _______) is how big the push on the electrons is. We use a ________ to measure it and it is measured in ______, a unit named after Volta.Resistance is anything that resists an electric current. It is measured in _____.”(Words: volts, amps, ohms, voltage, ammeter, voltmeter)
3More basic ideas…15/04/2017If a battery is added the current will ________ because there is a greater _____ on the electronsIf a bulb is added the current will _______ because there is greater ________ in the circuit
4Current in a series circuit 15/04/2017If the current here is 2 amps…The current here will be…The current here will be…And the current here will be…In other words, the current in a series circuit is THE SAME at any point
5Current in a parallel circuit 15/04/2017A PARALLEL circuit is one where the current has a “choice of routes”Here comes the current…Half of the current will go down here (assuming the bulbs are the same)…And the rest will go down here…
6Current in a parallel circuit 15/04/2017If the current here is 6 ampsAnd the current here will be…The current here will be…The current here will be…The current here will be…
7Voltage in a series circuit 15/04/2017If the voltage across the battery is 6V…V…and these bulbs are all identical…VV…what will the voltage across each bulb be?2V
8Voltage in a series circuit 15/04/2017If the voltage across the battery is 6V…VV…what will the voltage across two bulbs be?4V
9Voltage in a parallel circuit 15/04/2017If the voltage across the batteries is 4V…What is the voltage here?V4VAnd here?V4V
10Summary Current is THE SAME at any point 15/04/2017In a SERIES circuit:Current is THE SAME at any pointVoltage SPLITS UP over each componentIn a PARALLEL circuit:Current SPLITS UP down each “strand”Voltage is THE SAME across each”strand”
12Advantages of parallel circuits… 15/04/2017There are two main reasons why parallel circuits are used more commonly than series circuits:Extra appliances (like bulbs) can be added without affecting the output of the othersIf one appliance breaks it won’t affect the others either
13Resistance V R I Resistance = Voltage (in V) (in ) Current (in A) Georg Simon Ohm15/04/2017Resistance is anything that will RESIST a current. It is measured in Ohms, a unit named after me.The resistance of a component can be calculated using Ohm’s Law:VRIResistance = Voltage (in V)(in ) Current (in A)
14An example question: Ammeter reads 2A A V 15/04/2017Ammeter reads 2AVAWhat is the resistance across this bulb?Assuming all the bulbs are the same what is the total resistance in this circuit?Voltmeter reads 10V
15What is the resistance of these bulbs? More examples…15/04/20173A6V12V4V2A1A2V3AWhat is the resistance of these bulbs?
16Current-voltage graphs 15/04/2017IVIV2. BulbIV3. Diode1. ResistorExplain the shape of each graph
17Three simple components: 15/04/2017Diode – only lets current flow in one directionLight dependant resistor – resistance DECREASES when light intensity INCREASESThermistor – resistance DECREASES when temperature INCREASES
19DC and AC15/04/2017VDC stands for “Direct Current” – the current only flows in one direction:Time1/50th sAC stands for “Alternating Current” – the current changes direction 50 times every second (frequency = 50Hz)240VTV
20Words – large, harm, safety, melt, live, circuit, fuse Fuses15/04/2017Fuses are _______ devices. If there is a fault in an appliance which causes the ____ and neutral (or earth) wire to cross then a ______ current will flow through the _____ and cause it to _____. This will break the _______ and protect the appliance and user from further _____.Words – large, harm, safety, melt, live, circuit, fuse
21Words – fuse, fault, metal, surges, touch Earth wires15/04/2017Earth wires are always used if an appliance has a _____ case. If there is a _____ in the appliance, causing the live wire to ______ the case, the current “_______” down the earth wire and the ______ blows.Words – fuse, fault, metal, surges, touch
22Words – electromagnet, broken, attract, reset, quicker Circuit breakers15/04/2017If the current becomes too high the __________ is activated. This will ______ the iron and the contact will be _______. This will break the circuit.Circuit breakers have two main advantages over fuses: they work ______ and can easily be ______.Words – electromagnet, broken, attract, reset, quicker
23Power and fuses15/04/2017Power is “the rate of doing work”. The amount of power being used in an electrical circuit is given by:PIVPower = voltage x currentin W in V in AUsing this equation we can work out the fuse rating for any appliance. For example, a 3kW (3000W) fire plugged into a 240V supply would need a current of _______ A, so a _______ amp fuse would be used (fuse values are usually 3, 5 or 13A).
24Power and fuses Copy and complete the following table: Appliance 15/04/2017Copy and complete the following table:AppliancePower rating (W)Voltage (V)Current needed (A)Fuse needed (3, 5 or 13A)Toaster960240Fire2000Hairdryer300Hoover1000Computer100Stereo80
25Charge (Q)15/04/2017As we said, electricity is when electrons move around a circuit and carry energy with them. Each electron has a negative CHARGE. Charge is measured in Coulombs (C). We can work out how much charge flows in a circuit using the equation:QTICharge = current x time(in C) (in A) (in s)
26Example questions Charge (C) Current (A) Time (s) 5 2 0.4 1 20 0.5 50 15/04/2017Charge (C)Current (A)Time (s)520.41200.550250360A circuit is switched on for 30s with a current of 3A. How much charge flowed?During electrolysis 6A was passed through some copper chloride and a charge of 1200C flowed. How long was the experiment on for?A bed lamp is switched on for 10 minutes. It works on a current of 0.5A. How much charge flowed?
27Energy transferred = charge x voltage Energy and charge15/04/2017The amount of energy that flows in a circuit will depend on the amount of charge carried by the electrons and the voltage pushing the charge around:Energy transferred = charge x voltage(in J) (in C) (in V)EQV
28Example questions15/04/2017In a radio circuit a voltage of 6V is applied and a charge of 100C flows. How much energy has been transferred?In this circuit the radio drew a current of 0.5A. How long was it on for?A motor operates at 6V and draws a current of 3A. The motor is used for 5 minutes. Calculate: a) The motor’s resistance, b) the charge flowing through it, c) the energy supplied to itA lamp is attached to a 12V circuit and a charge of 1200C flows through it. If the lamp is on for 10 minutes calculate a) the current, b) the resistance, c) the energy supplied to the bulb.
29Comparing magnets and solenoids 15/04/2017NSMagnet:Solenoid:
30(The poles can be reversed by reversing the direction of the current) Electromagnets15/04/2017The strength of an electromagnet can be increased by doing three things:Increasing the voltageIncreasing the number of coilsInserting an iron core(The poles can be reversed by reversing the direction of the current)
31Examples of electromagnets 15/04/20172. Relay switch1. Speaker
32Electromagnetic induction 15/04/2017Electromagnetic inductionThe direction of the induced current is reversed if…The magnet is moved in the opposite directionThe other pole is inserted first
33Electromagnetic induction 15/04/2017Electromagnetic inductionThe size of the induced current can be increased by:Increasing the speed of movementIncreasing the magnet strengthIncreasing the number of turns on the coil
34AC Generator Induced current can be increased in 4 ways: 15/04/2017Induced current can be increased in 4 ways:Increasing the speed of movementIncreasing the magnetic field strengthIncreasing the number of turns on the coilIncreasing the area of the coil
35Words – step down, high, power, low, high The National Grid15/04/2017Electricity reaches our homes from power stations through the National Grid:Power stationStep up transformerStep down transformerHomesIf electricity companies transmitted electricity at 240 volts through overhead power lines there would be too much ______ loss by the time electricity reaches our homes. This is because the current is ___. To overcome this they use devices called transformers to “step up” the voltage onto the power lines. They then “____ ____” the voltage at the end of the power lines before it reaches our homes. This way the voltage is _____ and the current and power loss are both ____.Words – step down, high, power, low, high
36Words – alternating, magnetic field, induce, step up, voltage Transformers15/04/2017Transformers are used to _____ __ or step down _______. They only work on AC because an ________ current in the primary coil causes a constantly alternating _______ ______. This will “_____” an alternating current in the secondary coil.Words – alternating, magnetic field, induce, step up, voltageWe can work out how much a transformer will step up or step down a voltage:Voltage across primary (Vp)No. of turns on secondary (Ns)Voltage across secondary (Vs)No. of turns on primary (Np)
37Some transformer questions 15/04/2017Primary voltageVpSecondary voltageVsNo. of turns on primary NpNo. of turns on secondary NsStep up or step down?12V24V100?400V200V2025,000V50,000V1,00023V230V150
38Some example questions 15/04/2017Primary voltageVpSecondary voltageVsNo. of turns on primary NpNo. of turns on secondary NsStep up or step down?6V24V100?400,000V200V1,00025,000V20,00020230V1501,500A transformer increases voltage from 10V to 30V. What is the ratio of the number of turns on the primary coil to the number of turns on the secondary coil?A step-down transformer has twice as many turns on the primary coil than on the secondary coil. What will be the output (secondary) voltage if the input voltage is 50V?
39Static electricity15/04/2017Static electricity is when charge “build up” on an object and doesn’t move, e.g. rubbing a rod:
4015/04/2017Two different rods will attract each other if they have different charge:Two rods made of the same material will repel each other due to having the same charge:
41Van de Graff generators 15/04/2017A charge builds up on the dome due to electrons being “______ off” by the belt. If a big enough ______ is built up then the voltage becomes high enough to _____ the air molecules and the electrons “___” down to Earth – this is an electric _________.Words – charge, jump, current, rubbed, ionise
42Use of static 1 - Photocopiers 15/04/2017Photocopiers use static electricity. They work by: 1) Copying an ______ of the page onto a ______ plate, 2) Light then causes the charge to ____ away, leaving an “electrostatic impression” of the page, 3) The charges left on the plate ______ small drops of black powder, 4) The powder is transferred from the plate onto the _____, 5) The paper is _____ to “fix” the powder.PWords – heated, leak, paper, image, charged, attract
43Use of static 2 - Printers 15/04/2017Inkjet printers work by spraying charged drops of ink onto a page. The droplets can be directed using two oppositely charged plates. The voltage on these plates can be easily swapped or varied. The inkjet cartridge can also moved across the page by the printer
44Dangers of static15/04/2017During refuelling the fuel gains electrons from the pipe, making the pipe positive and the fuel negative. The resulting voltage may cause a spark – bad news!Solution: Either earth the fuel tank with a copper rod or connect the tanker to the plane by a copper conductor.
45Electrolysis Electrolysis is used to extract a HIGHLY REACTIVE metal. 15/04/2017Electrolysis is used to extract a HIGHLY REACTIVE metal.= chloride ion= copper ionWhen we electrolysed copper chloride the negative chloride ions moved to the positive electrode and the positive copper ions moved to the negative electrode – OPPOSITES ATTRACT!!!
46Some example questions 15/04/2017A current of 2A flows through some copper chloride for 1 minute and 0.01g of copper is deposited at the negative electrode.a) How much would be deposited if the current was increased to 6A?b) How much would be deposited if the current was kept at 6A and the experiment was left for another minute?c) How much charge flowed in question (b) above?2) A current of 0.05A flows through some copper chloride for 500 seconds and 0.05g of chlorine is released at the positive electrode.a) How much would be deposited if the current was increased to 0.1A?b) How much would be deposited if the current was kept at 0.1A and the experiment was left for 250 seconds instead?
47Numerical quiz15/04/2017What is the resistance of a bulb with a voltage of 12V and a current of 2A through it?This bulb transfers 100C of electrical charge into light energy. If the bulb is 100% efficient how much light energy was given out?A step up transformer changes 24V into 240V. It has 100 turns on the primary coil. How many does it have on the secondary coil?10g of copper is formed at the negative electrode during electrolysis. It took 5 minutes to do this. How much would you have after half an hour?In this electrolysis experiment the current during the 5 minutes was 2A. How much charge flowed?
48Numerical quiz15/04/2017A thermistor has a resistance of 200 when 20V is applied across it. What is the current through the thermistor?The same thermistor is put in a warm water bath. The resistance drops to 120. What is the current through it now?A kettle runs on a power rating of 2.4kW. If it is plugged into a mains supply what current will it draw?What fuse should this kettle have?A transformer has 5 times as many turns on the secondary coil as it does on the primary coil. What will the voltage across the primary coil be if the secondary coil voltage is 250V?
49Numerical quiz15/04/2017During electrolysis 0.1g of chlorine is released at the positive electrode. How much would have been released if the current was doubled?A 150 resistor is placed across a 3V battery. What current will it draw?How much power will this resistor use?An electric fire uses 1200C of charge over 2 minutes. What current did it draw?A laptop runs on 12V. A step down transformer is used so that it can be plugged in to a 240V mains supply. If the transformer has 200 turns on the primary coil how many will it have on the secondary coil?