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Flat Lens (Window) n1n1 n2n2 Incident ray is displaced, but its direction is not changed. tt 11 11 If 1 is not large, and if t is small, the displacement, d, will be quite small. d

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Converging Lens All rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point F. Double Convex P.A. F A beacon in a lighthouse produces a parallel beam of light. The beacon consists of a bulb and a converging lens. Where should the bulb be placed? n lens > n outside F At F Inside F Outside F P.A. F

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Converging Lens All rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point F. Double Convex P.A. F A beacon in a lighthouse produces a parallel beam of light. The beacon consists of a bulb and a converging lens. Where should the bulb be placed? n lens > n outside F At F Inside F Outside F P.A. F F

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1) Rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point. 2) Rays through center of lens are not refracted. 3) Rays through F emerge parallel to principal axis. Converging Lens Principal Rays F F Object P.A. Image is (in this case): Real orImaginary Inverted or Upright Enlarged or Reduced

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1) Rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point. 2) Rays through center of lens are not refracted. 3) Rays through F emerge parallel to principal axis. Converging Lens Principal Rays F F Object P.A. Image is: real, inverted and enlarged (in this case). Image

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1) Rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point. 2) Rays through center of lens are not refracted. 3) Rays toward F emerge parallel to principal axis. Diverging Lens Principal Rays F F Object P.A. Image is (always true): Real or Imaginary Upright or Inverted Reduced or Enlarged

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1) Rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point. 2) Rays through center of lens are not refracted. 3) Rays toward F emerge parallel to principal axis. Diverging Lens Principal Rays F F Object P.A. Image is virtual, upright and reduced. Image

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT BEYOND 2F From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT BEYOND 2F From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL This could be used in a camera. Big object on small film

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT AT 2F From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT AT 2F From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT BETWEEN F AND 2F From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT BETWEEN F AND 2F From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL This could be used as a projector. Small slide on big screen

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT AT F From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT AT F From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): NO IMAGE

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT BETWEEN F AND LENS From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT BETWEEN F AND LENS From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL This is a magnifying glass

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CONCAVE LENS From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL

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CONVEX LENS, OBJECT BETWEEN F AND LENS From the above diagram you can see that the image is (circle the correct choices): ENLARGED, SAME SIZE, or REDUCED INVERTED or ERECT REAL or VIRTUAL

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Converging Lens Which way should you move object so image is real and diminished? (1)Closer to lens (2)Further from lens (3)Converging lens can’t create real diminished image. F F Object P.A.

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Converging Lens Which way should you move object so image is real and diminished? (1)Closer to lens (2)Further from lens (3)Converging lens can’t create real diminished image. F F Object P.A.

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Which way should you move object so image is real? 1)Closer to lens 2)Further from lens 3)Diverging lens can’t create real image. ACT: Diverging Lenses F F Object P.A.

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Which way should you move object so image is real? 1)Closer to lens 2)Further from lens 3)Diverging lens can’t create real image. ACT: Diverging Lenses F F Object P.A.

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F Focal point determined by geometry and Snell’s Law: n 1 sin( ) = n 2 sin( ) Fat in middle = Converging Thin in middle = Diverging Larger n 2 /n 1 = more bending, shorter focal length. n 1 = n 2 => No Bending, f = infinity Lens in water has _________ focal length! n 1

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P.A. F Focal point determined by geometry and Snell’s Law: n 1 sin( ) = n 2 sin( ) Fat in middle = Converging Thin in middle = Diverging Larger n 2 /n 1 = more bending, shorter focal length. n 1 = n 2 => No Bending, f = infinity Lens in water has larger focal length! n 1

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1) Rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point. 2) Rays through center of lens are not refracted. 3) Rays through F emerge parallel to principal axis. Assumptions: monochromatic light incident on a thin lens. rays are all “near” the principal axis. Converging Lens Principal Rays F F Object P.A. Image is real, inverted and enlarged Image

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Preflight 19.1 A converging lens is used to project a real image onto a screen. A piece of black tape is then placed over the upper half of the lens. How much of the image appears on the screen?

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Java A converging lens is used to project a real image onto a screen. A piece of black tape is then placed over the upper half of the lens.

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Still see entire image (but dimmer)!

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Lens Equation F F Object P.A. dodo didi f Image d o = distance object is from lens: Positive: object __________ lens Negative: object __________ lens d i = distance image is from lens: Positive: ________ image (behind lens) Negative: ________ image (in front of lens) f = focal length lens: Positive: ___________ lens Negative: ___________ lens d i = m =

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Lens Equation F F Object P.A. dodo didi f Image d o = distance object is from lens: Positive: object in front of lens Negative: object behind lens d i = distance image is from lens: Positive: real image (behind lens) Negative: virtual image (in front of lens) f = focal length lens: Positive: converging lens Negative: diverging lens

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Multiple Lenses Image from lens 1 becomes object for lens 2 1 f1f1 f2f2 2 Complete the Rays!!

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Multiple Lenses: Magnification f1f1 f2f2 d o = 15 cm f 1 = 10 cm d i = 30 cm f 2 = 5 cm L = 42 cm d o =12 cm d i = 8.6 cm 12 Net magnification: m net = m 1 m 2

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Lenses – Application of Refraction AP Physics B. Lenses – An application of refraction There are 2 basic types of lenses A converging lens (Convex) takes.

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