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Electric Current Chapter 34

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Flow of Charge When the ends of an electric conductor are at different potentials, charge flows from one end to another - just like heat due to temperature difference - just like water flows downhill (difference in gravitational potential energy)

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Flow of Charge This difference in potential is often referred to as potential difference or voltage Voltage (V) is measured in volts (V). You can think of the source of voltage like a pump.

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Voltage Sources Supplies the voltage for any circuit. Acts like an “electric pump”. Examples: –Batteries –Generators –Wall plug

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Voltage Sources

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Types of Current There are two types of current: AC – alternating current - electrons flow first in one direction and then in the opposite direction - this happens by alternating the polarity of the generator or voltage source - the voltage of AC in America is normally 120 volts DC – direct current – electrons flow in a single direction – a battery in a circuit produces DC because the terminals of the battery always have the same signs.

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Electric Current Potential difference causes a flow of charge (electrons) in a conductor We call this electric current (I) Current is measured in amperes (A) Charge Current = time I = q/t

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A car’s starter motor draws 50 A. How much charge flows if the motor runs for 0.75 s? Given:I = 50At = 0.75s Unknown:q (charge) Equation:q = It Substitute:q = (50A)(0.75s) Solve:q = 37.5 C

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How long does it take for 52 C to pass through a wire carrying a current of 8.0 A? Given:q = 52 CI = 8.0 A Unknown:t (time) Equation:t = q/I Substitute:t = 52 C/8.0 A Solve:t = 6.5 s

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Lab 20 - Current What will happen to bulbs 1 and 2 when you disconnect the wires at various points? Consensus: Current requires a closed loop New Terms: Complete Circuit – all components are on the same closed loop

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Lab 21 - Conductivity What type of object, when inserted into the loop, will allow the two test bulbs to light? New Term: Continuous Conducting Path Test Circuit Consensus: Current requires a closed loop made entirely of conductors.

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Lab 22 – Conductivity 2 What parts of a socket and bulb are conductors and which are insulators? Fig 2. Clip – side view Base Clips Plates Consensus: Pieces that are metal are conductors. Parts like the base or the glass are insulators.

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Worksheet 1 In this circuit, which bulb lights first? D) They all light at the same time.

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Worksheet 1

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Which bulbs will light? D) Neither bulb The battery is not in the holder and the wires must be connected to both the positive and negative terminals of the battery.

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Worksheet 1 Which bulbs will light? A)Bulb A Bulb B is not part of the loop

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Worksheet 1

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4. Which bulbs will light? C) Both bulbs They are both on a complete circuit.

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Worksheet 1 CLOSED LOOP A. light Bulbs will B. conductors is made of C. metals made of Zinc Copper Aluminum No breaks has

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Worksheet 1 OPEN LOOP A. Not light Breaks or nonconducting path B. Open switch C. Insulators nonmetals D. Styrofoam E. Plastic F. Rubber

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Worksheet 1

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Power Where have we seen “power” before? It was the rate work was done (energy was transferred). P = W/t All power is measured in Watts (W).

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Electric Power Electric power is similar. It’s the rate electrical energy is transferred into another form. P = IV Electric power is often measured in the kilowatt, because the watt is so small.

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Electric Power What do you know of that is electrical and has a watt measurement on it?

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Electric Energy Electric energy can be calculated the same as any other form. E = Pt Electric energy, however, is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) Your parents’ energy bill is measured in kilowatt-hours. Usually, electric companies charge 7-12 cents per kWh. Cost = E(Rate)

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How much power is used by a calculator that operates on 8 volts and 0.1 ampere? If it is used for two hours, how much energy does it use? Given:V = 8 VI = 0.1 A Unknown:P (power) Equation:P = IV Substitute:P = (0.1 A)(8 V) Solve:P = 0.8 W

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How much power is used by a calculator that operates on 8 volts and 0.1 ampere? If it is used for two hours, how much energy does it use? Given: V = 8 V I = 0.1 A P = 0.8 W t = 2 hr Unknown:E (energy) Equation:E = Pt Substitute:E = (0.8 W)(2 hr) Solve:E = 1.6 Wh E =.0016 kWh

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Will a 1200-watt hair dryer operate on a 120-volt line if the current is limited to 15 amperes by a safety fuse? Given:P = 1200 WV = 120 V Unknown:I (current) Equation:I = P/V Substitute:I = 1200 W/120 V Solve:I = 10 A Can you operate the hair dryer? What about two hair dryers?

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How much energy is expended in lighting a 100- watt bulb for 30 minutes? Given:P = 100 Wt = 30 min Unknown:E (energy) Equation:E = Pt Substitute:E = (100 W)(0.5 hr) Solve:E = 50 Wh E = 0.05 kWh

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How much does it cost to operate a 100-watt lamp continuously for one week if the power utility rate is 10 cents per kilowatt-hour? Given:P = 100 Wt = 1 week Unknown:E (energy) Equation:E = Pt Substitute:E = (100 W)(168 hr) Solve:E = 16800 Wh E = 16.8 kWh

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How much does it cost to operate a 100-watt lamp continuously for one week if the power utility rate is 10 cents per kilowatt-hour? Given:E = 16.8 kWhRate = 10c/kWh Unknown:C (cost) Equation:C = E(rate) Substitute:C = (16.8 kWh)(10c/kWh) Solve:C = 168 cents C = $1.68

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Meters Ammeter - measures current - set in the loop - symbol: Voltmeter - measures voltage - set in “next to” the loop - symbol:

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Meters What type of meter is this? Ammeter What is the reading on this meter?0.4 A

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Meters What type of meter is this?Voltmeter What is the reading?6.5 V

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Meters What is the reading on this meter? 330 mA or0.33 A

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Meters What type of meter is this?Voltmeter What is the reading?10 V

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Lab 23 - Circuits A V B What is the relationship between voltage and current? Consensus: As voltage increases, current increases. New Terms: Resistance

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Electric Resistance Current depends not only on the amount of voltage impressed upon it but on the amount of resistance in the conductor. Different conductors offer different amounts of resistance Resistance is measured in ohms ( )

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Ohm’s Law Georg Simon Ohm, a German physicist, tested different wire circuits to see what effect resistance had on the current. He discovered that: Voltage Current = --------------- Resistance We call this Ohm’s Law!

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Ohm’s Law Ohm’s Law can also be written using symbols: I = V/R A triangle can help when solving problems with Ohm’s Law.

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What is the resistance of an electric frying pan that draws 12 amperes of current when connected to a 120-volt circuit? Given:I = 12 AV = 120 V Unknown:R (resistance) Equation:R = V/I Substitute:R = 120 V/12 A Solve:R = 10

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How much current is drawn by a lamp that has a resistance of 100 ohms when a voltage of 50 volts is impressed across it? Given:R = 100 V = 50 V Unknown:I (current) Equation:I = V/R Substitute:I = 50 V/100 Solve:I = 0.5 A

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Foundations of Physics

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