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Data Mining and the OptIPuter Padhraic Smyth University of California, Irvine

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Data Mining of Spatio-Temporal Scientific Data –Modern scientific data analysis increasingly data-driven data often consist of massive spatio-temporal streams –Research focus characterizing spatio-temporal structure in data statistical models for object shapes, trajectories, patterns... data mining from scientific data streams (NSF, Optiputer) recognition of waveforms in time-series archives (JPL,NASA) inference of dynamic gene-regulation networks from data (NIH) Markov models for spatio-temporal weather patterns (DOE) clustering and modeling of storm trajectories (LLNL)

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Image-voxel Data (“slices” of olfactory bulb in rats) Automatic segmentation of cellular structures of interest (glomelular layer) Thematic maps Data mining Scientific discovery

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Image-voxel Data (Remote sensing AVIRIS spectral data) Focus of attention on wavelengths of interest Thematic maps Data mining Scientific discovery

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What’s wrong with this information flow? “One-way” –Flow of information is from data to scientist Real scientific investigation is “two-way” Scientist interacts, explores, queries the data Most current data mining/analysis tools are relatively poor at handling interaction –Algorithms are “black-box”, do not allow scientists to be “in the loop” –Algorithms have no representation of the scientist’s prior knowledge or goals (no user models) –OptIPuter project “next generation” data mining tools for effective exploration of massive 2d/3d data sets

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OptIPuter focus in Data Mining Data –2d (or multi-d) spatio-temporal image/voxel data Goals –Allow scientists to explore these massive data sets in an efficient and flexible manner leveraging the OptIPuter architecture –Produce interactive software tools that allow scientists to explore massive data in an interactive manner: automated segmentation, thematic maps, focus of interest Technical Challenges –Scaling statistical algorithms to massive data streams –Providing mechanisms for effective scientific interaction –Developing algorithms for automated “focus-of-attention”

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Analysis of Extra-Tropical Cyclones Extra-tropical cyclone = mid-latitude storm Practical Importance –Highly damaging weather over Europe –Important water-source in United States Scientific Importance –Influence of climate on cyclone frequency, strength, etc. –Impact of cyclones on local weather patterns [with Scott Gaffney (UCI), Andy Robertson (IRI/Columbia), Michael Ghil (UCLA)]

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Sea-Level Pressure Data –Mean sea-level pressure (SLP) on a 2.5° by 2.5° grid –Four times a day, every 6 hours, over 20 years Blue indicates low pressure

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Winter Cyclone Trajectories

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Clustering Methodology Mixtures of curves –model as mixtures of noisy linear/quadratic curves note: true paths are not linear use the model as a first-order approximation for clustering Advantages –allows for variable-length trajectories –allows coupling of other “features” (e.g., intensity) –provides a quantitative (e.g., predictive) model –[contrast with k-means for example]

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Clusters of Trajectories

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Applications Visualization and Exploration –improved understanding of cyclone dynamics Change Detection –can quantitatively compare cyclone statistics over different era’s or from different models Linking cyclones with climate and weather –correlation of clusters with NAO index –correlation with windspeeds in Northern Europe

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