Introduction Ancient World History Origins to 1500
The Big questions How & why did the first civilizations arise? What role did cross-cultural contacts play in their developments? What was the nature of the relationship between these permanent settlements and nonagricultural peoples living elsewhere in the world? What brought the demise of these early civilizations, and what legacy did they leave for their successors in the region?
Extra Credit Based on what you have learned in this class, write a letter to a future employer that explains how religion, language, philosophy, material culture, non-material culture, and/or interaction with the environment have shaped the origins and evolution of world civilizations. Please provide at least two concrete examples.
Part I Early Humans & The Agricultural Revolution Chapter 1
I. The First Humans A. The Emergence of Homo sapiens Hominids Australo Pithecines Homo Habilis Homo Erectus Homo Sapiens Neanderthals Homo Sapiens Sapiens Out of Africa/Multiregional Theory
Paleolithic – “Old Stone” 2,500,00 – 10,000 B.C.E. B. The Hunter ‑ Gatherers Seasonal Rounds Horticulture 20-30/band – social institution (not nuclear family) Women gathered plants and engaged in hunting & fishing Stone tools Fire – 50,000 yrs. ago Social Advancement Cooperation & Communalism/Gender equality
C. The Neolithic Revolution, c. “New Stone” 10,000 ‑ 4000 B.C.E. Agricultural Revolution – The systematic growing of foods developed independently throughout the world. New type of polished stone axes Shift to agriculture Domestication of animals – meat milk and fibers Seasonal patterns shifted to sedentary living for some groups of people This led to a increase in the population
Mesolithic – Middle Stone age 10,000 – 7,000 B.C.E. Transition from food gathering society and economic system To systematic agricultural society or Pastoralism – Women’s status relatively high – Practices that elevated women’s role continued – Women’s work valued as men’ Textile producers – Female spirituality elevated
Neolithic Farming Villages After 10000 BCE Eurasian Villagers & Pastoralists Institution of the family elevated Parents and children became the major social group Pastoralist lifestyle - women had fewer children New sedentary lifestyle – women had more children and for longer periods Some communities were matrifocal, others increasingly patrifocal
Statue from Ain Ghazal in Jordan, 6500 B.C.E. Oldest human figurine known
Catal Huyuk Catal Huyuk in modern Turkey was larger, 32 acres, 6000 people by 6700-5700 o Fruits, nuts, wheat, cattle o Artisans o Figures of gods and goddesses o Female statuettes o Evidence of role of women/female in spirituality
p7 Women in modern Algeria harvesting grain, 4 B.C.E.
Consequences of Neolithic Revolution Development o of trade Specialization of crafts Division o f labor/not necessarily of value Pottery & Baskets New tools Gender divisions of labor Beginning of development of Practice of patriarchy- society dominated by men Beginning of decline of status of women
Bronze Age 3,000 – 1200 B.C.E. 4000-3000 technical development began to transform Neolithic towns Copper works after 4000 Copper and tin = bronze 3000 Bronze Eventually replaced by iron Walled cities and armies developed to protect new communities
Women’s Status 40,000 yrs ago to 1000 B.C.E – Flexible Gender Roles – Little emphasis on the control of women’s sexual conduct – Equal regard for women’s work – Prominent role for female Spirituality Austria
4 types of Communities after 1000BCE in Eurasia Hunter Gatherers – Women enjoyed equality with men Pastoralists & villagers – Some degree of inequality – Gender roles flexible – Women’s work held in high regard – Cult leaders, priestesses, mother godess Urban Dwellers – Cities that developed after 3500 BCE new degree of inequality for women
II. The Emergence of Civilization A. Early Civilizations Around the World
Civilization Civilization – complex culture in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements An urban focus New political and military structures New social structure based on economic power The development of more complexity in a material sense Distinct religious structure Development of writing New significant artistic and intellectual activity
“Civilization” & Women’s Status After 1000 BCE in Eurasian Civilizations – Decline of women’s status and equality – Gender roles became rigid – Men controlled political power of states – Women’s sexual morality became an issue of public concern – Stringent laws enforced single women’s virginity or wife’s fidelity to her husband Sexual double standard imposed by law made by men Creation of “Women’s work” or domesticity