Presentation on theme: "AUTHORS AND GENRES SUITABLE TO BE USED IN THE ENLGLISH CLASS. TYPES OF STORYBOOKS. TEMA 1."— Presentation transcript:
AUTHORS AND GENRES SUITABLE TO BE USED IN THE ENLGLISH CLASS. TYPES OF STORYBOOKS. TEMA 1
CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. PERIODS, AUTHORS AND GENRES SUITABLE TO BE USED IN THE ENLGLISH CLASS 2.1.HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 2.2.STRATEGIES TO EXPLOIT LITERATURE IN THE ENGLISH CLASS. 3. TYPES OF STORYBOOKS
INTRODUCTION Teaching English does not simply consist of instructing our students in the development of linguistic skills, but it deals with HAVING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENT STUDETS. Effective communication inlcudes also development of socio- cultural aspects. In this topic we will concentrate only on LITERATURE and its introductiion in the ESL class.
2. PERIODS, AUTHROS AND GENRES SUITABLE TO BE USED IN THE ENGLISH CLASS. THE POSITION OF LITERATURE IN ESL. BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURAY THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD PLACED LITERATURE IN A PRIVILIGED SITUATION. BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURAY THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD PLACED LITERATURE IN A PRIVILIGED SITUATION. MID OF THE 20TH CENTURY WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURALISM, LITERATURE WAS DOWNGRADED TO A SECOND POSITION IN LANGUAGE TEACHING, MID OF THE 20TH CENTURY WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURALISM, LITERATURE WAS DOWNGRADED TO A SECOND POSITION IN LANGUAGE TEACHING, OF THE 20TH CENTURY COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH KEPT ON REFUSING LITERATURE OF THE 20TH CENTURY COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH KEPT ON REFUSING LITERATURE 90-S OF THE 20TH CENTURY NOT UNTIL THE RECENT TIMES THAT THE TEACHERS INCLUDED LITERARY TEXTS IN THEIR CLASSES. 90-S OF THE 20TH CENTURY NOT UNTIL THE RECENT TIMES THAT THE TEACHERS INCLUDED LITERARY TEXTS IN THEIR CLASSES.
2. BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. 2.1.MIDDLE AGES 1.CHAUCER´S CANTERBURY TALES The plot: a group of people belonging to very diferent social stata who go to Canterbury on piligrimage. They set off on an April morning with the rain dripping from the branches, and in order to make the long journey short they told each other stories. Several adaptations for children are available. THE CANTERBURY TALES BY SELINA HASTINGS This is a retelling of seven of Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales", which aims to capture the spirit of the originals while making them accessible to the young reader. Animated adaptation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3zUoNG_P_0
2. THE TALES OF ROBIN HOOD It was written in 1450 but still popular among the young learners. 3. KING ARTHUR LEGENDS Thomas Malory´s Le Morte dArthur is a story of noble knights, colourful tournaments and fateful love, set in a courtly society which is outwordly secure and successful. An adaption of the legend was done in 1958 by Terence Handbury White. This book was called THE ONCE A FUTURE KING. The first part of the book (THE SWORD IN THE STONE) is the inspiration of the Wal Disney´s movie (1963).
A masterful retelling of the saga of King Arthur is a fantasy classic as legendary as Excalibur and Camelot, and a poignant story of adventure, romance, and magic that has enchanted readers for generations. You can watch the whole legend here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1oy6UQet5D0
2.2. RENAISSANCE PERIOD 1. WILLIAM SHAKESPEAR Difficulties: Language: specific adaptations for children are available. Might seem boring: select attractive, motovating passages and exploit them in entertaining way. Adaptations: TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE by Charles and Mary Lamb (1807) The book reduced the archaic English and complicated storyline to a simple level that children could read and comprehend. However as it noted in the Preface "his words are used whenever it seemed possible to bring them in." TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE by Charles and Mary Lamb (1807) The book reduced the archaic English and complicated storyline to a simple level that children could read and comprehend. However as it noted in the Preface "his words are used whenever it seemed possible to bring them in."
Shakespeare: The Animated Tales is a series of twelve half-hour animated television adaptations of the plays of William Shakespeare, broadcast on BBC 2 between 1992 and The show was both a critical and a commercial success. The episodes continue to be used in schools as teaching aids, especially when introducing children to Shakespeare for the first time. Shakespeare: The Animated Tales is a series of twelve half-hour animated television adaptations of the plays of William Shakespeare, broadcast on BBC 2 between 1992 and The show was both a critical and a commercial success. The episodes continue to be used in schools as teaching aids, especially when introducing children to Shakespeare for the first time. Hamlet: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6 QUC0fu84uQ
2. CHARLES PERRAULT Laid the foundations of the fairy tale in France. Many of his tales were translated into English. Little red Riding Hood with Miss Booksy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yAyoE39cBvU Cuentos interactivos:
18TH CENTURY This is the period in which the novel appeared. Adventure stories and novels with young boys as protagonists emerged. They were not intended for children, but traditionally associated with children´s literature. DANIEL DEFOE HENRY FIELDING JONATHAN SWIFT
1. DANIEL DEFOE´S ROBINSON CRUSOE The topic of the novel quite suitable for kids. The novel tells the story of a young Robinson Crusoe, a son of a merchant who suffered a shipwreck and is left alone on the shore of an island. The rest of the novel describes his struggle for surviving. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRscJGE1 3OA
2. HENRY FIELDING´S TOM JONES The plot is fairly basic and can be presented to students to be familiarised with the structure of the novel. Tom Jones is an orphan, brought up by a wealthy man, Allworthy. It causes jealousy on the part of his nephew and heir Mr Blifil. When Jones falls in love with Sofia, daughter of a neighbour, Blifil’s calumnies lead Allworthy to throw him out. After some comic difficulties, everything end happily.
3. JONATHAN SWIFT´S GULLIVER TRAVELS. The novel will delight young lerners as it is full of adventure and fantasy. It is the most famous example of Swift´s satirical work. 1 st part Lemuel Gulliver, a surgeon on a merchant ship, relates his shipwreck on the island of Lillput. 2 nd part Gulliver is accidentally left ashore on Brobdingnag (the inhabitants are as tall as steeps, and everything else is in proportion). 3 rd part is occupied with a visit to the flying island of Laputa. Satire against philosophers, men of science, historians. Gulliver's Travels (1939) - Full Movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6eyrmYRk1w v
Gulliver’s Travels Swift’s evolution is paralleled by the hero’s progress in the novel Lilliputans he becomes wary, slowly awakening to their pride and vanity The giants ofmake him realize Brobdingangcorruption,lost of pride and self-esteem The inhabitants of human’s nature can’t be Laputa reformed The Yahoos countrySwift’s aversion to mankind
19 TH CENTURY MARY SHELLY’S FRANKENSTEIN CHARLES DICKENS A CHRISTMAS CAROL OSCAR WILDE THE HAPPY PRINCE AND THE NIGHTINGALR AND THE ROSE THE BROTHERS GRIMM and HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN LEWIS CARROLL ALICE’S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND ROBERT LOIS STEVENSON TREASURE ISLAND RUDYARD KIPLING THE JUNGLE BOOK LOIS MARY ALCOTT LITTLE WOMAN MARK TWAIN THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
MARY SHELLY’S FRANKENSTEIN Stands a landmark because it portrays the modern man, the modern Prometheus. Apart form this, the frightening atmosphere and the different film adaptations make of the novel an appealing tool to be used in the English classroom. Summary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRppXdKDY_c
CHARLES DICKENS A CHRISTMAS CAROL Is well known due to his ability to portray the suffering of the lower classes in the Victorian England. A CHRISTMAS CAROL is a novel that can be exploited at Christmas time in order to deal with celebrations in English speaking countries. Scrooge performs the role of an avaricious and heartless man, showing no feeling for the Christmas spirit. After he is visited by the ghost of his former business partner, ne sees visions of the past, present and future that inspire him to become a better person. Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol 1971 Oscar Winner HD Richard Williams Animation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZTzyC9CZuOA
OSCAR WILDE THE HAPPY PRINCE AND THE NIGHTINGALR AND THE ROSE THE HAPPY PRINCE: tells the story of a prince’s statue who gave his own jewels to help poor people. THE NIGHTINGALR AND THE ROSE: the nightingale gives its own blood in order to provide the red colour to a rose that a young boy wanted to give to his loved one. The Happy Prince - Bedtime Story Animation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IP7ESTU4Pxs
THE BROTHERS GRIMM and HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN The Brothers Grimm - writing down and preserving oral traditions in Germany: Snowhite Rapunzel Hansel and Gretel Hans Christian Andresen: The Little Mermaid The Snow Queen The Ugly Duckling
ROBERT LOIS STEVENSON TREASURE ISLAND Wrote a classic pirate adventure novel. RUDYARD KIPLING THE JUNGLE BOOK A collection of stories about a boy who lives in the jungle with animals. MARK TWAIN THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER and THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN. A good tool for raising cultural awareness in students.
20 TH CENTURY L.FRANK BAUM THE WONDERFUL WIZARD OF OZ BEATRIX POTTER THE TALE OF PETER RABBIT KENNETH GRAHAME THE WIND IN THE WILLOS J.M. BARRIE PETER AND WENDY C.S. LEWIS CHRONICLES OF NARNIA TOLKIEN THE HOBBIT AND THE LORD OF RINGS ROAL DAHL CHARLIE AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY J.K. ROWLING HARRY POTTER EOIN COLFER ARTEMIS FOWL
L.FRANK BAUM THE WONDERFUL WIZARD OF OZ (1900) It was the subject of a stage play in 1902 and a film in It is one of the best-known stories in American culture. The protagonist of the story tries to find her way back to Kansas. On her way back she has to solve a set of problems. J.M. BARRIE PETER AND WENDY Peter pan magically refuses to grow up and spend his never ending childhood in the small island Neverland.
TOLKIEN THE HOBBIT AND THE LORD OF RINGS The Hobbit follows the quest of the home-loving Baggins to win a share of the treasure guardered by the dragon, Smug. The Lord of Rings refers to the story’s main antagonist who had created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSzeFFsKEt4
21 century EOIN COLFER ARTEMIS FOWL (2001) Starring a teenage criminal mastermind named Artemis Fowl II. Artemis Fowl is a ruthless and extremely intelligent young criminal whose main goal is the acquisition of money through a variety of often illegal schemes.
2.2.STRATEGIES TO EXPLOT LITERATURE IN THE ENGLISH CLASS Educational and follow-up potential Learning English language and culture Learning about other subjects Learning about the world Learning how to learn
Using storybooks in the classroom(Ellis, Brewster, 1991): Provide a context for the story and introduce the main characters Provide visual support Explain the context in mother tongue if necessary. Identify your linguistic objectives. Relate the story with other subject areas. Decide in which order to introduce or revise the language necessary for understanding the story. Decide when you will read the story. If necessary, modify the story to make it more accessible. Include rhymes or songs to reinforce the story. Decide about the follow/up activities.
In order to exploit literature we need to develop some specific strategies (Duff and Maley, 1999): Flexibility: any text can be approached in a different way depending on the aspect you chose. Similarity: all texts have feature in common. Developing ides: Picture stories: the emphasis is on creation and transformation. Discussion activities: the emphasis is on the student’s personal involvement with a topic. Specific strategies or procedures: Reconstruction: texts are incomplete or in a defective form. Expansion: to add given elements to a tetx. Replacement: remove certain elements and replace them by others. Matching: finding correspondences. Media Transfer.
3. TYPES OF STORYBOOKS Criteria for selecting storybooks. The texts should always be appropriate to the age, interests and goals of our pupils. Pupils need to be able to read at a reasonable speed (200 words per minute for extensive reading). With our youngest students we should use short, simple texts with illustrations.
3.2. Difficulties for the reader LINGUISTIC DIFFICULTIES STYLISTIC DIFFICULTIES BACKGROUND INFORMATION
The vocabulary and syntax of the text should be within our pupils’ grasp. Idiomatic language should be kept at a minimum. LINGUISTIC LEVEL
STYLISTIC LEVEL It is useless to choose texts of great stylistic complexity for early stages. Style analysis should be based on the linguistic features with which our pupils are already familiar.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION The understanding of a text can also be hindered by the lack of the background knowledge of the English-speaking countries culture. Social conventions and customs, attitude and values, religious and political ideas, geographical features, diet and dress, historical background, etc.
To use literature in the class: Pupils should be able to infer the meaning of the most unknown words from the context. We must also bear in mind complex structure. If both sentence structure and vocabulary must be at a level they can understand we won’t be able to use classic masterpieces. To find out if the text is suitable from the linguistic point of view we can use a cloze test (Hill, 1986). Take an extract from the text and delete words from the passage on a regular basis (al least 50 deletions). I oMore than 57% correct - pupils can read on their own oBetween % - can read with the dictionary help. oBelow 44% - cannot read the text.
3.2. Types of texts. Ellis and Brewster (1991) have classified the storybooks under 3 headings: Narrative features Content Lay-out
According to narrative features: Rhyming words Repeating structures Cumulative content and language Interactive Humorous According to content: Everyday life Animal stories Fairy tales Fantasy
According to lay-out: Flap Cut-away pages Minimal text No text Speech bubbles
Authentic vs. non-authentic texts The main text typology is the one that distinguishes between authentic and non-authentic texts. Authentic material are those which have been produced for purposes other than to tech language. A non-authentic text is the one that has bee designed especially for language learners.
The question of levels Naturally certain texts will lend themselves more easily to certain levels. At lower levels some possibilities include leaflets, timetables, menus, short headline type reports, audio and video advertising, or short news broadcasts. The task should be simple and relatively undemanding, and it is important to pre-teach key vocabulary so as to prevent panic. At more intermediate levels this list could be expanded to include longer articles, four or five minute TV or radio news reports, a higher quantity of shorter items, or even whole TV programmes, if your copyright agreements allow it. Again pre-teaching is important, although your students should be able to deal with unknown vocabulary to some extent. At higher levels it's a case of anything goes. At an advanced level students should have some tactics for dealing with new vocabulary without panicking, but it's still useful to have a few quick definitions to hand for some of the trickier stuff!
Advantage and Disadvantages of Using Authentic Materials Advantages Disadvantages They have a positive effect on learner motivation. They provide authentic cultural information. They provide exposure to real language. They relate more closely to learners ' needs. They support a more creative approach to teaching. Often too culturally biased, difficult to understand outside the language community. Vocabulary might no be relevant to the student`s immediate needs. Too many structures are mixed so lower levels have problems decoding the texts. Special preparation is necessary, can be time consuming.
Non-Authentic Material Non-authentic materials are those that are speci ﬁ cally designed for the language learners. They are either adapted or simpli ﬁ ed or written keeping in mind the language pro ﬁ ciency of the learners in question. Edited materials can be classified into simulated authentic and artificial. Simulated authentic texts are those that appear to be a authentic. Artificial texts are made to illustrate a particular language point.
To foster the acquisition of communicative competence must at least be simulated authentic.