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Dante ’ s Inferno Dante ’ s Inferno Layers of Hell -- Introduction.

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1 Dante ’ s Inferno Dante ’ s Inferno Layers of Hell -- Introduction

2 Dark Wood -- Worldliness (before entering Hell) ► Dante is trying to get to the top of Mount of Joy – He ’ s been too worldly & sinful…. ► The woods are dark and scary ► 3 beasts block his journey (symbols of the major divisions of Hell):  Leopard – represents malice (hate) & fraud (trickery, deception)  Lion – represents violence  She-Wolf – represents unrestrained immortality (doing what feels good not matter the consequences)

3 ► Dante can ’ t go forward, and he can ’ t go backward because of the beasts ► Beatrice appears & tells him that his idol, Virgil, will lead him through Hell and help him find his way to forgiveness (Purgatoro) and redemption (Paradisio – Heaven) ► Dante & Virgil begin their journey through Hell

4 Vestibule ► The first souls to be tormented are the Opportunists (or COWARDS)– those who were only out for themselves. They never chose to be good (accept God) or particularly bad. ► The Opportunists chase a Golden Banner waving in the wind – because they wavered in life. Angels who did not choose God or Satan are included here. ► The Opportunists are stung by bees & wasps, and maggots suck the pus that oozes from their sores for eternity ► The air smells horrible—like being stuck in West Lincoln when the chicken farmer across the street spreads his chicken manure!!!!

5 ► Dante & Virgil come up to Charon, who transports the dead across the River Acheron ► The inscription above the River says:  ABANDON ALL HOPE, YE WHO ENTER HERE

6 1 st Ring: Limbo ► On the edge of Hell– for those not saved even though they did not sin ► Heaven does not claim them, Hell does not want them. ► Some people here: classic Greek figures (Homer, Ovid, & Virgil) ► No “ new ” people would go here because according to Dante ’ s view of religion, Christ came to save humans from an eternity of limbo.

7 2 nd Ring: Lustful ► At the gate to Level 2, Minos, the Judge of the Underworld, evaluates each sinner ’ s life. He coils his tail to reveal the sinner ’ s punishment: 4 coils = Level 4; 8 coils = Level 8 ► On this level are people who committed adultery—they let their passions sweep them away in life—so they are condemned to be swept away in death. ► Landscape: dirty, smelly, powerful winds batters the sinners at tremendous speeds (think NASCAR here!) ► Dante recognizes: Helen of Troy, Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt; hears the story of the lovers, Paulo & Francesca. ► Modern day: Governor Mark Sanford, Tiger Woods, Jesse James, Brad Pitt & Angelina Jolie

8 3 rd Ring: Gluttonous ► Sinners “ pigged out ” in life ► Mythic creature: Cerebus, a 3- headed dog (remember Harry Potter?) – covers sinners in dog- slobber ► Landscape: a garbage heap that smells of swine; heavy, steady rain ► Dante recognizes: Ciacco, a Florentine dude who gossiped nonstop. ► Modern example: “ Barfarama ” -- Stand By Me clip Barfarama

9 4 th Ring: Avaricious ► Sinners are divided into 2 categories:  Hoarders—misers who kept all their wealth for themselves  Wasters – used up all they had on fruitless ventures and materials ► Punishment: they have to push gigantic boulders up mountains only to have them roll back down ► Mythological creature: Pluto (Greek god of wealth) – makes no sense when he talks. ► Landscape: rocky & filled with hills/ mountains ► Dante recognizes: no one in particular except Dame Fortune, who was appointed by God to help people on Earth; instead, she changed destinies using her spinning wheel ► Modern examples: Former Illinois Governor Rod Blogoiveich (tried to sell Pres. Obama ’ s senate seat Rod Blogoiveich Rod Blogoiveich

10 5 th Ring: Wrathful and Sullen ► “ Wrathful ” --People who were always mad ► Muddy figures attack one another. ► “ Sullen ” –People who were always depressed ► Sink beneath the surface in filthy slime. ► Mythic creature: Plegyas – the Riverman of the River Styx— takes souls to next level of Hell ► Dante recognizes: Filippo Argenti—an enemy of his in life ► Modern examples: Mike Tyson, Chris Brown

11 Marsh of Styx ► What Dreams May Come – clip 1 What Dreams May Come – clip 1 What Dreams May Come – clip 1

12 6 th Ring: Heretics ► Sinners who denied God ’ s existence; their punishment is to be confined in tombs. ► Mythic creatures: The Furies, malicious spirits that torment souls; and, Medusa, whose snake-hair turns people to stone. They try to stop the travelers until a Holy Messenger comes to open the gates of the City of Dis. ► Landscape: layers upon layers of opened tombs surrounded by flames. ► Dante recognizes: Uberti & Cavalcanti, friends of his in life. He is saddened to see their fate. ► Modern examples: Bill Mahr (comedian) & Sarah Silverman (actress)

13 7 th Ring: Violent ► In order to enter, Dante & Virgil have to get around the Minotaur (part man, part beast) ► This level is divided into 3: ► AGAINST NEIGHBORS: ► Mythic creature: Centaurs ► Landscape: Immersed in a river of boiling blood and stabbed by the Centaurs. ► Dante recognizes Attila the Hun & Alexander the Great ► Modern examples: Ted Bundy & Jeffrey Dahmer; also, Dexter (TV Show)—these are all serial killers

14 7 th Ring: Violent ► AGAINST SELF – because they destroyed their earthly bodies, their punishment is to be mutated into trees & vines for eternity—they cannot move ► Mythic creatures: Harpies – birds that eat them and suck their blood. The only time they can speak is when a leaf is plucked and they bleed. ► Landscape: dense, dark forest ► Dante recognizes: Pier delle Vigne – a secretary of King Fredrick II ► Modern examples: Michael Jackson & Cory Haim. Also What Dreams May Come: “ Suicide ” clip & “ Found Her ” clip Suicide Found Her Suicide Found Her

15 7 th Ring: Violent ► AGAINST GOD: Must lie facing upward toward heaven ► AGAINST NATURE: Must run forever ► AGAINST ART: Forced to crouch over moneybags. ► Landscape – fiery sand that represents the fruitless nature of their lives ► Dante recognizes: Brunetto Latini, one of his teachers ► Modern examples: Michael Vick (dog-fighting) & Pete Rose (betting on baseball games Michael Vick (dog-fighting) Michael Vick (dog-fighting)

16 8 th Ring: Fraudulent (Malebolge— loosely means “ evil ditch ” ) ► This level is divided into 10 bolge (ditches) for categories of sinners. ► Mythic creature: Geryon, who lured travelers to him only for him to kill them ► Landscape: depends on the sin (see next slides) ► SEDUCERS: made others do their evil work ► Driven by horned demons ► Modern examples: Charles Manson

17 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► FLATTERERS: gave compliments just to get people to do what they wanted ► Forced to wallow in a floor of excrement ► Modern examples: Wormtail in Harry Potter & Quinn in Glee (show clip)

18 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► SIMONISTS (Priests & church officers take money to forgive sins ► Buried head down and burned on the soles of their feet. ► Modern examples: Brian Lisowski, a Chicago priest (among others—see: Insiders steal big from unsuspecting churches Insiders steal big from unsuspecting churchesInsiders steal big from unsuspecting churchesInsiders steal big from unsuspecting churches

19 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► FORTUNE TELLERS/ SOOTHSAYERS ► Bodies distorted so that the head is twisted around to only view his back. ► Dante recognizes: Tieresias!! ► Modern examples: Sylvia Browne Sylvia BrowneSylvia Browne

20 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► GRAFTERS: the cold-hearted covetous & greedy who wanted everything they could put their hands on (love of money/material wealth)— cheated to gain it ► Dipped into boiling tar. Demon holds down the sinners with a pitchfork. ► Modern examples: Bernie Madoff –scammed thousands of people & governments out of money Bernie Madoff Bernie Madoff

21 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► HYPOCRITES: people who appear good on the outside, but are evil on the inside ► Dante uses this level to show that we ALL have to face our own hypocrisy ► Must always walk at a steady pace, clothed in heavy caps of lead. ► Modern examples: former Gov. Elliot Spitzer (paid for sex with “ escorts ” while investigating crimes as Attorney General & kept on when elected governor) & Reverend Ted Haggard (preached against homosexuality, but admitted to having a gay relationship) Elliot Spitzer Reverend Ted Haggard Elliot Spitzer Reverend Ted Haggard

22 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► THEIVES: stole from others in life ► Snakes coil and bind these sinners ► Modern examples: Jim on this Office episode Office Office

23 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► DECIEVERS—misused their God-given gifts for ill gain ► Wrapped in fire ► Modern examples: Criss Angel (video) Criss Angel Criss Angel

24 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► SOWERS OF DISCORD (SCANDALS) – people who in life tore others apart with fighting, gossip, & tearing them down ► Hacked to pieces, put back together, and hacked up again. ► Modern Example: See what Jim does to Andy what Jim does to Andy what Jim does to Andy

25 8 th Ring: Fraudulent ► FALSIFIERS—deceiving others by counterfeiting or falsifying information ► Made insane; plagued with all types of illnesses and diseases. ► Dante recognizes: Ulysses who planned the Trojan Horse trick on the Greeks ► Modern example: Ladykillers (movie) Ladykillers

26 9 th Ring: Treachery ► TO FAMILY, COUNTRY, AND FRIENDS ► Frozen in a sheet of ice with only their face exposed to show the pain.

27 Center of 9 th Ring: Lucifer

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