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MAIN OUTLINES OF FINNISH HISTORY AND CULTURE Esa Sundbäck 4.4.2014 Esa Sundbäck 4.4.2014.

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Presentation on theme: "MAIN OUTLINES OF FINNISH HISTORY AND CULTURE Esa Sundbäck 4.4.2014 Esa Sundbäck 4.4.2014."— Presentation transcript:

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2 MAIN OUTLINES OF FINNISH HISTORY AND CULTURE Esa Sundbäck Esa Sundbäck

3 Basic information population 5.2 millionpopulation 5.2 million the third least densely populated country in Europe (after Iceland and Norway)the third least densely populated country in Europe (after Iceland and Norway) territory: the fifth biggest country in Europe (after Germany, France, Spain and Sweden)territory: the fifth biggest country in Europe (after Germany, France, Spain and Sweden)

4 bilingual country: Finnish 93%, Swedish 6%bilingual country: Finnish 93%, Swedish 6%

5 Finnish culture

6 What are the Finns in mental sense?

7 1) Nation of silence -" if there is nothing important to be said, be quit" - consequently, the Finns are NOT talkative (don’t blame yourself!)

8 2) Finns are restricted - not easy (and fast) to became a deep friend; but if it happens, the Finn is a really faithful and loyal friend let say throughout the life (?)

9 3) Finns are obedient to rules and laws – for the Finns things are either black or white, but not grey

10 Origin of the Finns in the prehistory, population from different directions, then mixtured: origin partly from the east (Finno- Ugric people), partly from Western Europein the prehistory, population from different directions, then mixtured: origin partly from the east (Finno- Ugric people), partly from Western Europe

11 language from the east = Finnish language belongs to the Finno-Ugric languages (together with Estonian, Hungarian in Europe - Mari, Udmurt and Komi in Russialanguage from the east = Finnish language belongs to the Finno-Ugric languages (together with Estonian, Hungarian in Europe - Mari, Udmurt and Komi in Russia

12 History History

13 Periods of Finnish History Periods of Finnish History 1) Finland under Swedish reign ) Finland under Swedish reign ) Finland under Russian reign ) Finland under Russian reign ) Independency ) Independency 1917-

14 Finland under Swedish reign th-12th centuries - Finland a battlefield between Sweden (catholic church) and Novgorod (forthcoming Russia; orthodox church) ► Swedish influences to the western part, Russian influences to the eastern part of the country (diversity )10th-12th centuries - Finland a battlefield between Sweden (catholic church) and Novgorod (forthcoming Russia; orthodox church) ► Swedish influences to the western part, Russian influences to the eastern part of the country (diversity )

15 Diversity of the Finnish Culture Diversity of the Finnish Culture

16 Swedish dominance ► Catholic religion = Western Finland as a part of medieval Europe – in a cultural sense, Finland became a part of Europe (not Russia)Swedish dominance ► Catholic religion = Western Finland as a part of medieval Europe – in a cultural sense, Finland became a part of Europe (not Russia)

17 Reformation in a Lutheran form to Sweden ► consequently, contemporary Finn's respect of law, rules and the obedience of the stateReformation in a Lutheran form to Sweden ► consequently, contemporary Finn's respect of law, rules and the obedience of the state

18 consequence of Swedish rule over Finland = Swedish became the language of the ruling upper class - Finnish that of ordinary peopleconsequence of Swedish rule over Finland = Swedish became the language of the ruling upper class - Finnish that of ordinary people

19 Finland under Russian reign : a Grand Duchy of Finland separate entity as a part of Imperial Russia = 1) autonomious administration 2) Swedish law as contrary to Russian law in Russia 3) Lutheran religion as contrary to Orthodox religion in Russiaseparate entity as a part of Imperial Russia = 1) autonomious administration 2) Swedish law as contrary to Russian law in Russia 3) Lutheran religion as contrary to Orthodox religion in Russia

20 awakening of Finnish nationalism in the 19 th century = improvement of the Finnish language's position in terms of Swedish language idea of Finnish culture and self- consciousness characterizing Finnish speaking populationawakening of Finnish nationalism in the 19 th century = improvement of the Finnish language's position in terms of Swedish language idea of Finnish culture and self- consciousness characterizing Finnish speaking population

21 Finnish nationalism was not addressed against Russia but the ruling Swedish-speaking elite in Finland (exception in European scale: the Finns did not rebel against Russia) =Finnish nationalism was not addressed against Russia but the ruling Swedish-speaking elite in Finland (exception in European scale: the Finns did not rebel against Russia) =

22 National Myth = Kalevala (Harry Potter) National composer = Jean SibeliusNational Myth = Kalevala (Harry Potter) National composer = Jean Sibelius

23 Independent Finland Independent Finland February and October Revolutions in Russia 1917 ► detachment out of Russia as an independent country in the end of 1917February and October Revolutions in Russia 1917 ► detachment out of Russia as an independent country in the end of 1917

24 Civil War in the Spring 1918: as a background, social and political unequality between the wealthy minority and the poor majorityCivil War in the Spring 1918: as a background, social and political unequality between the wealthy minority and the poor majority

25 1920s and 1930s: idea of a bilingual country as equal rights for both Finnish and Swedish throughout the country (not based on territorial distinction between Swedish or Finnish-speaking areas)1920s and 1930s: idea of a bilingual country as equal rights for both Finnish and Swedish throughout the country (not based on territorial distinction between Swedish or Finnish-speaking areas) why? - Finland aimed at cooperation with Sweden against the threat of Communist Soviet Union why? - Finland aimed at cooperation with Sweden against the threat of Communist Soviet Union

26 Second World War: Winter War : Soviet invasion on Finland "Continuation War" (Finnish concept) against Soviet Union as ally of Nazi GermanySecond World War: Winter War : Soviet invasion on Finland "Continuation War" (Finnish concept) against Soviet Union as ally of Nazi Germany

27 Finland at the time of the Cold War : “Finlandization” and Kekkonen as President Finland was under Soviet pressure and political influence: "Finlandisierung" or “Finlandization” (= a small country under the great power's influence, not really independent)Finland was under Soviet pressure and political influence: "Finlandisierung" or “Finlandization” (= a small country under the great power's influence, not really independent)

28 in spite of Soviet dominance, Finland managed to stay as western democracy and avoided to be transformed to a Communist country as contrary to other Eastern European countriesin spite of Soviet dominance, Finland managed to stay as western democracy and avoided to be transformed to a Communist country as contrary to other Eastern European countries

29 Kekkonen as President (you read correctly, 25 years!) Kekkonen as President (you read correctly, 25 years!)

30 concentration of power to his hands - however, not illegal because Finnish Constitution gave lot of power to the Presidentconcentration of power to his hands - however, not illegal because Finnish Constitution gave lot of power to the President

31 used his personal connections to Soviet leaders as a weapon against domestic political opponents in Finlandused his personal connections to Soviet leaders as a weapon against domestic political opponents in Finland

32 censorship in Finland: did not allow to publish negative information on Soviet Unioncensorship in Finland: did not allow to publish negative information on Soviet Union

33 after Kekkonen's era, the power of Finnish President was diminishedafter Kekkonen's era, the power of Finnish President was diminished

34 for further information: Jason Lavery: The History of Finlandfor further information: Jason Lavery: The History of Finland


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