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Building Phytotechnologies Building Phytotechnologies Building an Urban Ecosystem within the Concrete Jungle Christine Prins and Covey Potter.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Phytotechnologies Building Phytotechnologies Building an Urban Ecosystem within the Concrete Jungle Christine Prins and Covey Potter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Phytotechnologies Building Phytotechnologies Building an Urban Ecosystem within the Concrete Jungle Christine Prins and Covey Potter

2 Why build green? Using biological properties to address concerns in urban ecosystems – Indoor air quality – Thermoregulation – Roof runoff – Parking lot pollutants/climate – Grey water We are confronted with these pollutants most every day. How can we use our knowledge of the natural environment to combat these?

3 Used by urban planners to organize amount of greenspace necessary for increased human health and well-being Attempting to quantify benefits of plants in an urban area – Recreation – Aesthetics – Emotional well-being Based on Leaf area index Allows for development in conjunction with greenspace Open for interpretation on how to implement Green Plot Ratio How do we integrate nature into our building? (Ong 2003)

4 Indoor Air Pollutants several times greater indoors than out (Orwell et al. 2004) Plants and microorganisms in Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere are critical for pollutant removal (Wolverton and Wolverton 1993) Humans indoors almost 90% of the time “Sick building syndrome” (De Kempener et al. 2004)

5 Indoor Air Plant “Biofilters” used to clean volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) from air. - Toluene removed by Azalea enriched with bacteria Psuedomonas putida; - Formaldehyde removed by Chrysathemum. - Xylene removed by Date Palm - Ammonia removed by Lady Palm. (De Kempener et al. 2004Orwell et al. 2004, Wolverton and Wolverton 1993)

6 CO 2 Scrubbers Development of industrial bioscrubbers to decrease green-house gasses from fossil-fueled power plants (Jeong et al. 2003) Hot spring Algae (pH 7-11) to treat CO 2 (Hsueh et al. 2006)

7 Green Roofing Increased runoff in urban environment due to impervious surfaces (Kohler et al. 2002) Gravel = 51% runoff while Vegetated = 18% runoff 10% cover in green roof yielded 3% decrease in runoff A 2% slope with 4 inch media decreased runoff to 13% (Mentens et al. 2006, VanWoert et al. 2005)

8 Green Roofing Affects local microclimate - Increased infiltration - Increased evaporation - Decreased temperature - Decreased flooding - Dust filtration (and air pollutants) - Improved thermal comfort indoors - Increased urban wildlife habitat - Provides urban ecosystem services (Kohler et al. 2002, Mentens et al. 2006, Pangopoulos 2008, VanWoert et al. 2006)

9 Green Roofing From Mentes et al. 2006

10 Green Roofing From VanWoert et al. 2005

11 Urban Forestry Trees provide shade, increased insulation, decreased insolation, increased infiltration, and intake of pollutants in the urban landscape - Decreased summer air conditioning = $15.25/tree, but Increased winter heating = $5.25/tree (Simpson and McPherson 1998) - Increased canopy cover by 40% yields 2% reduction in vehicle emissions (Scott et al. 1998)

12 The 411 on Graywater (or Greywater) Municipal wastewater Sinks, washers, bathtub 50-80% of municipal water use Not toilet water (that’s black water) Typical contaminants: Low levels of organics and nutrients Solids (food particles, hairs and fibers) Heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cd, Al, Pb, etc) Xenobiotic Organic Compounds (shampoos, detergents, perfumes, coffee, tea, diary products, cleaners, etc) Pharmaceuticals Micro-organisms Bacteria Protozoans Helminths (Eriksson et al. 2002, Garland et al. 2004)

13 REUSE! Filtered and treated greywater can be reused within the municipal, domestic, and industrial systems in the following ways: Restricted and unrestricted irrigation Garden/lawn watering Toilet flushing Non-potable household use Reusing greywater can lead to a 25-50% reduction in total domestic water consumption (Li et al. 2009, Jokerst et al. 2009, Ghisi and Ferreira 2007)

14 Methods for Remediation Hydroponics – Horizontal – Vertical Constructed Wetlands – Free Water Flow – Horizontal Subsurface Flow – Vertical Flow Greenhouse Use In tandem with Physical Filtration Methods

15 Horizontal – Indoor or outdoor Vertical (Living Walls) – Pre-filtered – Indoor aesthetics – Downward flow through semi-potted plants Benefits: – easily added amendments for improved filtration – Recycles otherwise wasted nutrients – Breaks down organic compounds Hydroponic Systems (Benefits, Environmental, Greywater Treatment 2009, Garland et al. 2004, Garland et al. 2000)


17 Even Useful in Advertising…..!

18 Constructed Wetlands Outdoor use of marsh/wetland species to filter extra nutrients, contaminants, and surfactants associated with greywater Place inside impermeable layer to prevent leaching Sand or gravel filter layer Estimated 0.8 m 2 of wetland/person (Ghisi and Ferreira 2007, Jokerst et al. 2009, Vymazal 2009)

19 Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Model (Vymazal 2009) Free Water Surface and Subsurface Model Vertical Flow Model (Gross et al. 2007) (Jokerst et al.2009)

20 At the end of the Constructed Wetland treatment, there is a significant reduction in contaminants such as excess nitrogen, phosphorus, etc. (Philippi et al. 1999)

21 Greenhouse Use Greywater runoff can be used to irrigate/water greenhouse plants In tandem with physical treatment options: Septic tanks Sedimentation Sand/gravel filtration layers Disinfectants (Usually Chlorine, but can be biological: Essential Oils!) (Winward et al. 2008, Garland et al. 2004, Philippi et al. 1999)

22 Phragmites australisTypha lattifoliaScirpus acutus Lactuca sativa (Jokerst et al. 2009, Gross et al. 2007, Winward et al. 2008,Garland et al. 2004) Plants to Use! Or your favorite oranmental…. Triticum aestivum

23 Gain Ground- Turn your concrete jungle into an Urban Ecosystem

24 References Benefits, Environmental, Greywater Treatment. EcoWalls. 2009. De Kempeneer, L., B. Sercu, W. Vanbrabant, H. Van Langenhove, W. Verstraete. 2004. Bioaugmentation of the phyllosphere for the removal of toluene from indoor air. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 64: 284–288 Eriksson, E, K Auffarth, M Henze, A Ledin. 2002. Characteristics of grey wastewater. Urban Water 4 (2002) 85–104 Garland, JL, LH Levine, MC Yorio, ME Hummerick. 2004. Response of greywater recycling system based on hydroponic plant growth to three classes of surfactents. Water Research 38: 1952-1962. Ghisi, E, DF Ferreira 2007. Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and greywater in a multi-story residential building in southern Brazil. Building and Env. 42: 2512–2522. Gross, A, O Shmueli, Z Ronen, E Raveh. 2007. Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland: a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities. Chemosphere 66: 916-923. Hsueh, H.T., H. Chu, and S.T. Yu. 2006. A Batch Study on the Bio-fixation of Carbon Dioxide in the Absorbed Solution from a Chemical Wet Scrubber by Hot Spring and Marine Algae. Chemosphere. 66 (5): 878-886 Jeong, M.L., J.M. Gillis, and J.Y. Hwang. 2003. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation by Microalgal Photosynthesis Carbon Dioxide Mitigation by Microalgal Photosynthesis Bull. Korean Chemistry Society. 24 (12): 1763 Jokerst, AW, LA Roesner, SE Sarvelle. 2009. An evaluation of graywater reuse utilizing a constructed wetland treatment system. Kohler, M., M. Schmidt, F.W. Grimme, M. Laar, V.Lucia de Assuncao Paiva, and S. Tavares. 2002. Green Roofs in temperate climates and in the hot- humid tropics – far beyond aesthetics. Environmental Management and Health. 13 (4): 382-391 Li, F, K Wichmann, R Otterpohl. 2009. Review of the technological approaches for greywater treatment and reuses. Sci of the Total Env. 407: 3439-3449. Mentens, J., D. Raes, and M. Hermy. 2006. Green Roofs as a Tool for Solving the Rainwater Runoff Problem in the Urbanized 21 st Century. Landscape and Urban Planning. 77: 217-226 Oberndorfer, E., J. Lundholm, B. Bass, R.R. Coffman, H. Doshi, N. Dunnett, S. Gaffin, M. Kohler, K.K.Y. Liu, and B. Rowe. 2007. Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services. BioScience. 57 (10): 823-833 Ong, BL. 2003. Green Plot Ratio: an Ecological measure for architecture and urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 63: 197-211. Orwell, R.L., R.L. Wood, J. Tarran, F. Torpy, and M.D. Burchett. 2004. Removal of Benzene by the Indoor Plant/Substrate Microcosm and Implications for Air Quality. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 157: 193-207 Panagopoulos, T. 2008. Using Microclimatic Landscape Design to Create Thermal Comfort and Energy Efficiency. Conferencia Sobre Edificious Eficientes, Universidade do Algarve. 1-4 Philippi, L.S. 1999. Domestic effluent treatment through integrated system of septic tank and root zone. Water Sci. Technol. 40(3):125–13. Scott, K.L., J.R. Simpson, and E.G. McPherson. 1999. Effects of Tree Cover on Parking Lot Microclimate and Vehicle Emissions. Journal of Arboriculture. 25 (3): 129-142 Simpson, J.R. and E.G. McPherson. 1998. Landscape and Urban Planning: Sacramento’s Parking Lot Shading Ordinance: Environmental and Economic Costs of Compliance. Atmospheric Environment. 32 (1): 69-74 VanWoert, N.D., D.B. Rowe, J.A. Anderson, C.L. Rugh. R.T. Fernandez, and L. Xiao. 2005. Green Roof Stormwater Retention: Effects of Roof Surface, Slope, and Media Depth. Journal of Environmental Quality. 34: 1036-1044 Vymazal, J. 2009. The use of constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow for various types of wastewater. Ecol. Engin. 35:1-17. Winward, GP, LM Avery, T Stephenson, B Jefferson. 2008. Essential oils for disinfection of greywater. Water Research 42: 2260-2268. Wolverton, B.C. and J.D. Wolverton. 1993. Plants and Soil Microorganisms: Removal of Formaldehyde, Xylene, and Ammonia from the Inddor Environment. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences. 38: 2

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