2Summary of main points After acquiring a substitute product, raise price on both products to eliminate price competition between them.raise price more on the low-margin (more price elastic demand) product.reposition the products so that there is less substitutability between them.After acquiring a complementary product, reduce price on both products to increase demand for both products.If ﬁxed costs are large relative to marginal costs, capacity is ﬁxed, and MR > MC at capacity, then set price to ﬁll available capacity.
3Summary of main points (cont.) If demand is unknown, and the costs of underpricing are smaller than the costs of over-pricing, then underprice, on average, and vice-versa.If promotional expenditures make demand more elastic, then reduce price when you promote the product, and vice-versa.Psychological biases suggests “framing” price changes as gains rather than as losses.
4Introductory anecdote: Harry Potter When Scholastic Publishing released the final Harry Potter, sales expectations were through the roof – the previous HP had sold over 7M copies in the first 24 hours alone.Scholastics suggested selling price was $34.99, and they sold the book to wholesale retailers for $18.99Instead of following the advice in chapter six and pricing the book at the point where the markup equals the inverse demand elasticity (P-MC)/P = 1/|e|, Barnes and Noble, Amazon, Costco, and Walmart all priced the book at less than $20These retailers are clearly interested in maximizing profit, so why were prices so low?In this chapter, we move beyond the simple, single-product analysis of Chapter 6 to more realistic settings. In fact, the MR=MC pricing rule applies only to a single-product ﬁrm setting a single price. For ﬁrms that sell multiple products, or those who use low prices to win new customers, the rule does not hold.
5Pricing schemesWe have seen this kind of pricing before, the low price for 3-liter Coke used merely to attract customers to a grocery store. Whatever the grocery store lost on 3-liter Cokes, it made up in sales on other items.Amazon was following a similar tactic. By pricing low, Amazon sold over two million copies of HP.Some were new customers, who would purchase books from Amazon in the future; and some purchased additional items at the same time they purchased The Deathly Hallows.In fact, Amazon estimates that about 1% of its $2.89 billion second-quarter revenue was due to added sales from customers who also purchased The Deathly Hallows.Both the grocery store and the bookstore were pricing where MR < MC, or equivalently where (P-MC)/P < 1/|e|. They did so because they were trying to maximize total proﬁt, not proﬁt on their individual product lines.
6Pricing commonly owned substitutes To price commonly owned products, use marginal analysisDiscussion: Purchasing a nearby, rival video storeHow does this change the price of video rentals at each store?If there were only one store, marginal analysis finds the point where MR=MC to maximize profits, BUT common ownership of two substitutes changes the calculationReducing price at one store steals sales from the other (reduces MR at both)To counter the falling MR, raise prices at both stores to maximize profitsConsider your product portfolio as a “bundle” of goodsDemand for a bundle of substitutes is less elastic than demand for the individual products - less elastic demand implies a higher optimal priceRaise the price more on the more elastic product (try to push price- sensitive customers to the higher-margin product)
7Another option for substitutes After acquiring a substitute product, you can reposition the products so they don’t directly compete with each other.For example, you might want to stock multiple copies of the most popular videos at one of the stores (add depth) but stock a wider range of titles (add breadth) at the other.Moving the products farther apart can further increase proﬁt after acquiring a substitute product.
8Pricing commonly owned complements Again, use marginal analysis to determine pricing.Discussion: Purchasing a parking lot adjacent to video storeCommon ownership means pricing decisions must consider the effects on movie rentals as well as parking lot use.Reducing price at one increases demand at the other, i.e., common ownership increases MR at bothWith bigger MR, reduce price (sell more) to maximize profitsAgain, consider your product portfolio as a “bundle” of goodsDemand for a bundle of complements is more elastic than demand for the individual productsMore elastic demand implies a lower optimal price
9Revenue or yield management Products such as cruise ships, hotels, stadiums, commercial parking lots, etc. have similar characteristics.The costs of building capacity are mostly fixed or sunkAnd, these businesses face capacity constraintsThe first decision for these firms is how much capacity to build – because this is an extent decision, marginal analysis can be used.Keep adding capacity until LRMR = LRMCOnce capacity is built, firms make pricing decisions, ignoring the sunk or fixed costs of building capacity.Relevant costs are now short-run MR and MCIf MR>MC at capacity, price to fill available capacity – because the capacity is fixed the firm cannot sell more by reducing price.LRMR – long run MR - the expected additional revenue thatanother parking space, hotel room, ship cabin, or stadium seat would earn over the life of thecapacityLRMC – long run MC - the expected additional cost of building, maintain-ing, selling, and using another unit of capacity over the life of the capacity.
10Revenue management example Example: designing a new hotelkeep adding rooms to the design plan, as long as LRMR > LRMCSuppose that the optimal size is 300 rooms. At the optimal size, annualized LRMC of building, cleaning, and heating the room is about $400 per day.Once the rooms are built/the costs have been sunk, the hotel’s owners must decide what to charge for the rooms. Suppose that 90% of the annualized LRMC are ﬁxed or sunk and that the relevant marginal cost is just $40 per day.Since capacity decisions are determined by all costs, and the pricing decision only by short-run MC, it ’s likely that MR > MC at the capacity of the hotel. If so, then the hotel’s owner should price to fill capacity (sell all available rooms).Choose a price that matches expected demand to capacityIn some industries, like parking lots, stable demand and the daily observation of realized demand make this relatively easy to doIn other industries, like cruise ships, this is much more difficult
11Revenue or yield management (cont.) When demand is difficult to predict, pricing to fill capacity is also difficult.To maximize profits, balance the cost of over-pricing (lost profit on unsold capacity) against the cost of under-pricing (lower margins on capacity sold)Optimal price minimizes the expected costs of these two mistakes.In general, if the lost profit from over-pricing (unused capacity) is bigger than the lost profit from under- pricing (lower margins), then price lower than would fill capacity, and vice-versa.
12Advertising and promotional pricing Combines two of the “Four P’s of marketing,” Pricing and PromotionPromotional spending affects demand in different waysPrice-related promotions (coupons, end-of-aisle displays, etc.) tend to make demand more elasticIf promotion makes demand more elastic, it makes sense to reduce price concurrentlyProduct-related promotions (quality advertising, celebrity endorsements, etc.) tend to make demand less elasticIf promotions make demand less elastic, it makes sense to raise price concurrentlyCaveat: Prices can affect customer perception of quality – i.e. higher price equals higher quality in the mind of the consumer
13Psychological Pricing Biases can affect optimal pricing decisions.Example: Airline snacksIn 2008, some airlines began charging for snacksIt seems like a good idea because those who value an in- flight snack could buy one and those who didn’t didn’t have to buy.Many passengers, though, viewed the change negatively and changed airlines as a result.Research in the field of behavioral economics says that this reaction was predictable using “prospect theory”The way a decision is framed matters a great deal to the decisions that consumers make, i.e. consumers feel losses more than gains – so decisions should be framed in such a way to highlight a gain not the loss of an in-flight snacks.
14Psychological pricing (cont.) Consumers are also very sensitive to fairness.Many retailers make deliberate pricing decisions so as not to appear unfairHome Depot didn’t raise prices after Katrina, though demand did increase; hardware stores don’t increase the price on snow shovels following a big winter blizzardIn 2008, when gas prices rose to meet consumer demand, many US citizens were outraged and heavily criticized oil companies for profiting “unfairly.”To avoid looking unfair, companies must come up with creative solutions.In the music industry, performers set concert ticket prices below the market price. People buy up the low priced tickets and sell them on secondary markets, which consumers don’t subject to rules of fairness.Often, artists also sell tickets on secondary sites, sharing in the profits but avoiding the label of “unfair”
15Alternate intro anecdote American Airlines pioneered the development of sophisticated reservation management systems, launching SABRE in 1968Without overbooking practices like those instituted through SABRE, AA estimates that 15% of the seats on sold out flights would be unused.This overbooking process was the first element in developing a “yield management” system.With additional industry changes in the 1970’s, AA moved to develop a yield management system with the goal of "selling the right seat to the right customer at the right time."
16Alternate intro anecdote (cont.) The yield management system helps determineHow many seats to allocate initially to each fare categoryHow to dynamically adjust this allocation as reservations come in and the date of the flight approaches.Accurate forecast of demand and cancellations are criticalThe complexity of the problem eventually led to the development in 1988 of an automated system for yield management, DINAMO. The system's net impact was estimated be $1.4 billion in additional revenues over a three year period.
17Another pricing anecdote Las Vegas CasinosOffer both hotel rooms and gamingPrices on rooms are often set at “sub-optimal” levelsCasinos plan to more than make up for the room profit shortfall with gaming profitsSimilar to grocery store loss leader conceptGet people in the doorGoal is to maximize total profit, not individual product profit
18Managerial Economics - Table of contents 1. Introduction: What this book is about2. The one lesson of business3. Benefits, costs and decisions4. Extent (how much) decisions5. Investment decisions: Look ahead and reason back6. Simple pricing7. Economies of scale and scope8. Understanding markets and industry changes9. Relationships between industries: The forces moving us towards long-run equilibrium10. Strategy, the quest to slow profit erosion11. Using supply and demand: Trade, bubbles, market making12. More realistic and complex pricing13. Direct price discrimination14. Indirect price discrimination15. Strategic games16. Bargaining17. Making decisions with uncertainty18. Auctions19. The problem of adverse selection20. The problem of moral hazard21. Getting employees to work in the best interests of the firm22. Getting divisions to work in the best interests of the firm23. Managing vertical relationships24. You be the consultantEPILOG: Can those who teach, do?Managerial Economics - Table of contents