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Understanding MARC Bibliographic

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1 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Princeton University Library How MARC21 Works Welcome!!! Understanding MARC Bibliographic Eduardo Tenenbaum Cotsen Children’s Library Cataloger

2 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Workshop contents Part 1. The Bibliographic Record Basics of ISBD description The bibliographic record and user tasks of the catalog Part 2. MARC and the bibliographic record MARC elements Description fields Controlled access points 1. The catalog is a powerful tool and like all tools, it pays to know how it works and what it is designed to to. 2. MARC is the basic format for representing the library’s resources in the catalog. We will go over all the basics, with special emphasis on how MARC satisfies the functions of the catalog. 3. Not everything in the MARC record is captured the OPAC display of a record. By knowing MARC you can maximize the use of the catalog. There will be short practice drills as we go along. A list of online resources will follow the presentation. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

3 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Workshop goals Identify the main elements in the MARC bibliographic format Understand how MARC encodes bibliographic content Learn strategies for “reading” a MARC record On the more subjective side— Make MARC work for you Become a smarter user of the catalog Understanding MARC Bibliographic

4 The Bibliographic Record
Part 1 The Bibliographic Record

5 The Bibliographic Record
The description of an item of recorded information, which includes all the data necessary to uniquely identify it, together with access points. For records entered into an online catalog, the MARC format is generally used. Source of Bib Record definition: University of Arizona. School of Information Resources and Library Science. (Mar. 10, 2009) Idiosyncratic definition of cataloging: bringing together what belongs together and keeping apart what belongs apart. Elements: Main entry 2. Title and statement of responsibility 3. Publication 4. Physical description 5. Note 6. Resource identifiers 7. Subjects 7. Classification (Access) Bibliographic description is based on an internationally agreed standard (ISBD) Understanding MARC Bibliographic

6 The Bib Record and the Library Catalog
Find Identify Select Acquire Navigate User tasks from: Explain each of the user tasks of the catalog. Every element of the bibliographic record supports the user tasks of the catalog Understanding MARC Bibliographic

7 Description and Access: Summary
Bibliographic Description (Used to uniquely identify an item) Title and statement of responsibility Edition Material of physical medium Publication and manufacturing Physical description Series Notes of useful information Standard numbers Access Points (Used to identify and collocate an item) Uncontrolled Title proper Place of publication Year Controlled Names Personal Corporate Conference Geographic Uniform titles Topical terms A general list of the main elements in the bibliographic record. The point here is not to memorize them, but to understand that these, rather than arbitrary, are supported by well-established standards: Description (ISBD, AACR2) and Access (AACR2). Understanding MARC Bibliographic

8 Catalog cards now have other uses …
cARTalog Collection, Special Collections Department University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City, Iowa Source of image: University of Iowa Libraries. cSusan Field. Whale Pillow. From the cARTalog Digital Collection:http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cartalog  Place next to image (from permission letter): cARTalog Collection, Special Collections Department, University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City, Iowa … but the fundamentals of description and access remain. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

9 The Bibliographic Record and MARC
Part 2 The Bibliographic Record and MARC

10 Catalog card similar to OPAC display
Long View Understanding MARC Bibliographic

11 OPAC display derived from MARC record
“The MARC formats are standards for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine-readable form.”—Library of Congress. [Points: brief history of MARC; storage and sharing information; billions of records in OCLC alone, etc.] OPAC display depends on MARC coding. MARC contains much more data than OPAC display (fixed fields, 0xx, 9xx) Staff View Understanding MARC Bibliographic

12 MARC Formats (Bibliographic)
MARC format designed to capture essential information--more “granular” than most other formats, even MODS, Dublin Core, etc. Note main components: Fixed fields: Leader: 24 positions [0-23]; 008: 34 positions. 2. 0XX -- Control information, numbers, and codes Main entry xx (ISBD description) 5. 6xx -- Subject 6. 7xx -- Added entry other than subject or series 7. 8xx -- Series added entry 8. 9xx -- Local use You don’t want to read a MARC record from top to bottom. Start from the description fields and move outward toward the headings. Bibliographic Record Understanding MARC Bibliographic

13 MARC Formats (Holdings)
Holdings record: describes the holdings, included location and call number. Holdings Record Understanding MARC Bibliographic

14 MARC Formats (Authority 1)
Authority record: establishes and justifies an authorized form of heading. Headings are Names (personal, corporate, conference), Geographic, Uniform Titles, Subjects. Authority Record Understanding MARC Bibliographic

15 MARC Formats (Authority 2)
Authority records also give provide “see” references to the authorized form of heading. Reference can be in any language, and now in many scripts too. Authority record with many name variants Understanding MARC Bibliographic

16 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Reading a MARC record How to read a MARC record: NOT from top right to bottom left. Start from description fields 245-5XX and move outward to controlled access points. Fix fields (especially 008 is a “summary” of the main content in the record and is best understood when read last. Not from top left to bottom right … but from the center out. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

17 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
MARC Elements ‡a The great cat massacre and other episodes in French cultural history / ‡c Robert Darnton. 250 ## ‡a 1st Vintage Books ed. 260 ## ‡a New York : ‡b Vintage Books, ‡c 1985. 300 ## ‡a xiii, 298 p. : ‡b ill. ; ‡c 21 cm. 504 ## ‡a Includes bibliographical references and index. Source: Understanding Machine-Readable Cataloging. March 12, 2009. NOTES: Field is the entire line. MEMORIZE! Tag: always three numbers. Indicators: always two numbers, I.e. 1 and 4, not “14”; normally blank but coding varies from field to field. Subfield $a is usually implied. In this record: ISBD areas 1 (title), 2 (edition), 4 (Publication), 5 (Physical Desc.), 7 (Notes). FIELD TAG INDICATOR DELIMITER SUBFIELD CODE Zeroing in on ISBD description fields Understanding MARC Bibliographic

18 Title and statement of responsibility
100 1# ‡a Darnton, Robert. ‡a The great cat massacre and other episodes in French cultural history / ‡c Robert Darnton. ‡a Great cat massacre and other episodes in French cultural history. ‡l French ‡a La massacre de chats : ‡b attitudes et croyances dans l’ancienne France / ‡c Robert Darnton ; traduit de l’américain par Marie-Allyx Revellat. . . . 700 1# ‡a Revellat, Marie-Allyx, ‡e tr. 100 1# ‡a Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de, ‡d ‡a Coloquio de los perros. ‡l English & Spanish ‡a The dialogue of the dogs = ‡b El coloquio de los perros / ‡c Miguel de Cervantes ; translated by William Rowlandson. [TURN ON ANIMATION FOR EACH EXAMPLE] Note indicators in 245: 1 is because there is an author main entry (field 100), 4 is the number of non-filing characters. 2.Work is a collection of essays, no one author. 00 = title main entry; 0 non-filing characters. 245 $b: remainder of title. 3.Parallel title (note punctuation); WITH: uniform title. FIELD TAG INDICATOR DELIMITER SUBFIELD CODE Examples of field 245 (ISBD area 1) with personal name and uniform title. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

19 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Note fields 500 ## ‡a Includes index. 502 ## ‡a Thesis (Ph. D.)--Princeton University, 2008. 504 ## ‡a Bibliography: p ‡t Europe -- ‡t Asia -- ‡t North America -- ‡t South America. 510 4# ‡a ESTC ‡c R211806 520 ## ‡a An illustrated collection of poems set to music. 546 ## ‡a Parallel text in French and English. FIELD TAG INDICATOR DELIMITER SUBFIELD CODE Examples of fields 5XX (ISBD area 7). Talk about order of notes. Note fields display with special labels in the OPAC, helping users sort information especially in long records. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

20 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Review (1) 100 1# ‡a Darnton, Robert. ‡a The great cat massacre and other episodes in French cultural history / ‡c Robert Darnton. 250 ## ‡a 1st Vintage Books ed. 260 ## ‡a New York : ‡b Vintage Books, ‡c 1985. 300 ## ‡a xiii, 298 p. : ‡b ill. ; ‡c 21 cm. 504 ## ‡a Includes bibliographical references and index. 650 #0 ‡a [Topical subject heading not yet covered] FIELD TAG INDICATOR DELIMITER SUBFIELD CODE Description fields 245-5XX with field 100 main entry. Review main fields of description. Introduce (informally) use and place of 100. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

21 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Review (2) Title proper = Parallel title : other title information / first statement of responsibility ; each subsequent statement of responsibility. -- Edition statement / first statement of responsibility relating to the edition. -- First place of publication, etc. : First publisher, etc, date of publication, etc. -- Extent of item : other physical details ; dimensions. -- (Title proper of series / statement of responsibility relating to series) -- Note(s). -- Standard number. [TURN ON ANIMATION FOR EACH EXAMPLE] Note indicators in 245: 1 is because there is an author main entry (field 100), 4 is the number of non-filing characters. 2.Work is a collection of essays, no one author. 00 = title main entry; 0 non-filing characters. 245 $b: remainder of title. 3.Parallel title (note punctuation); WITH: uniform title. Second level description [modified]: AACR2, 1.0D2. ISBD description areas written out in card catalog form. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

22 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Review (2) 020 ## ‡a 13-digit ISBN 245 XX ‡a Title = ‡b Parallel title : other title information / ‡c first statement of responsibility ; each subsequent statement of responsibility. 250 ## ‡a Edition statement / ‡b first statement of responsibility relating to the edition. 260 ## ‡a First place of publication, etc. : ‡b First publisher, etc, ‡c date of publication, etc. 300 ## ‡a Extent of item : ‡b other physical details ; ‡c dimensions. 490 0# ‡a Title proper of series / statement of responsibility relating to series ; ‡v series vol. no. 500 ## ‡a Note(s). [TURN ON ANIMATION FOR EACH EXAMPLE] Note indicators in 245: 1 is because there is an author main entry (field 100), 4 is the number of non-filing characters. 2.Work is a collection of essays, no one author. 00 = title main entry; 0 non-filing characters. 245 $b: remainder of title. 3.Parallel title (note punctuation); WITH: uniform title. ISBD description areas written out and coded in MARC format. Understanding MARC Bibliographic 22

23 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Quiz XXX 1# ‡a Travers, P. L. ‡q (Pamela Lyndon), ‡d XXX 10 ‡a Mary Poppins from A to Z. ‡l Latin XXX 10 ‡a Maria Poppina ab A ad Z / ‡c scripta a P.L. Travers ; picturas delineavit Mary Shepard ; latine reddidit G.M. Lyne XXX ## ‡a London : ‡b Collins ; ‡c 1968 cm. XXX ## ‡a [56] p. : ‡b ill. ; ‡c 20 cm. XXX ## ‡a Features twenty-six vignettes, one for each letter of the alphabet, starring Mary Poppins and other characters from the Mary Poppins novels. XXX ## ‡a Latin translation of: Mary Poppins from A to Z. Identify the correct TAG for each field in the record. Hints: FIELD TAG INDICATOR DELIMITER SUBFIELD CODE [TURN ON ANIMATION FOR EACH EXAMPLE] Note indicators in 245: 1 is because there is an author main entry (field 100), 4 is the number of non-filing characters. 2.Work is a collection of essays, no one author. 00 = title main entry; 0 non-filing characters. 245 $b: remainder of title. 3.Parallel title (note punctuation); WITH: uniform title. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

24 Tags should look like this …
100 1# ‡a Travers, P. L. ‡q (Pamela Lyndon), ‡d ‡a Mary Poppins from A to Z. ‡l Latin ‡a Maria Poppina ab A ad Z / ‡c scripta a P.L. Travers ; picturas delineavit Mary Shepard ; latine reddidit G.M. Lyne 260 ## ‡a London : ‡b Collins ; ‡c 1968 cm. 300 ## ‡a [56] p. : ‡b ill. ; ‡c 20 cm. 500 ## ‡a Features twenty-six vignettes, one for each letter of the alphabet, starring Mary Poppins and other characters from the Mary Poppins novels. 546 ## ‡a Latin translation of: Mary Poppins from A to Z. FIELD TAG INDICATOR DELIMITER SUBFIELD CODE [TURN ON ANIMATION FOR EACH EXAMPLE] Note indicators in 245: 1 is because there is an author main entry (field 100), 4 is the number of non-filing characters. 2.Work is a collection of essays, no one author. 00 = title main entry; 0 non-filing characters. 245 $b: remainder of title. 3.Parallel title (note punctuation); WITH: uniform title. Understanding MARC Bibliographic 24

25 Controlled access points
0XX Control information, numbers and codes 1XX Main entry 2XX Titles and title paragraph (title, edition, imprint) 3XX Physical description, etc. 4XX Series statements 5XX Notes 6XX Subject access fields 7XX Added entries other than subject or series; linking fields 8XX Series added entries; location, and alternate graphics 9XX Reserved for local implementation Source: Library of Congress. Talk about parallel content between 1xx, 4xx, 6xx, 7xx, 8xx X00: Personal X10: Corporate X11: Meeting X30: Uniform tiltle X40: Bibliographic title X50: Topical terms X51: Geographic names MARC bibliographic format blocks Fields under authority control marked in red Understanding MARC Bibliographic

26 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Parallel content X00 Personal names X10 Corporate names X11 Meeting names X30 Uniform titles X40 Bibliographic titles X50 Topical terms X51 Geographic names Source: Understanding MARC bibliographic: Talk about parallel content between 1xx, 4xx, 6xx, 7xx, 8xx X00: Personal X10: Corporate X11: Meeting X30: Uniform tiltle X40: Bibliographic title X50: Topical terms X51: Geographic names Parallel tag construction for fields requiring authority control Understanding MARC Bibliographic

27 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Parallel content X00 Personal names X10 Corporate names X11 Meeting names X30 Uniform titles X40 Bibliographic titles X50 Topical terms X51 Geographic names 100 1# ‡a Barker, Stuart, ‡d 1970- Source: Understanding MARC bibliographic: Talk about parallel content between 1xx, 4xx, 6xx, 7xx, 8xx X00: Personal X10: Corporate X11: Meeting X30: Uniform tiltle X40: Bibliographic title X50: Topical terms X51: Geographic names A book written by Stuart Barker … Understanding MARC Bibliographic

28 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Parallel content X00 Personal names X10 Corporate names X11 Meeting names X30 Uniform titles X40 Bibliographic titles X50 Topical terms X51 Geographic names 100 1# ‡a Barker, Stuart, ‡d 1970- ‡a Knievel, Evel ‡d Source: Understanding MARC bibliographic: Talk about parallel content between 1xx, 4xx, 6xx, 7xx, 8xx X00: Personal X10: Corporate X11: Meeting X30: Uniform tiltle X40: Bibliographic title X50: Topical terms X51: Geographic names … about the person Evel Knievel … Understanding MARC Bibliographic

29 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Parallel content X00 Personal names X10 Corporate names X11 Meeting names X30 Uniform titles X40 Bibliographic titles X50 Topical terms X51 Geographic names 100 1# ‡a Barker, Stuart, ‡d 1970- ‡a Knievel, Evel ‡d 650 #0 ‡a Stunt cycling ‡z United States ‡v Biography. Source: Understanding MARC bibliographic: Talk about parallel content between 1xx, 4xx, 6xx, 7xx, 8xx X00: Personal X10: Corporate X11: Meeting X30: Uniform tiltle X40: Bibliographic title X50: Topical terms X51: Geographic names … on the topic of stunt cycling in the United States … Understanding MARC Bibliographic

30 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Parallel content X00 Personal names X10 Corporate names X11 Meeting names X30 Uniform titles X40 Bibliographic titles X50 Topical terms X51 Geographic names 100 1# ‡a Barker, Stuart, ‡d 1970- ‡a Knievel, Evel ‡d 650 #0 ‡a Stunt cycling ‡z United States ‡v Biography. 710 2# ‡a St. Martin’s Press. Source: Understanding MARC bibliographic: Talk about parallel content between 1xx, 4xx, 6xx, 7xx, 8xx X00: Personal X10: Corporate X11: Meeting X30: Uniform tiltle X40: Bibliographic title X50: Topical terms X51: Geographic names … published by St. Martin’s Press. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

31 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Quiz XXX xx ‡a Rowling, J. K. [Author of: Harry Potter and the sorcerer’s stone] XXX xx ‡a GrandPré, Mary. [Illustrator of: Harry Potter and the sorcerer’s stone] XXX xx ‡a Bible. ‡p O.T. ‡p Haggai [Text of a book from the Bible] [Commentary on this text] XXX xx ‡a Potter, Harry (Fictitious character) XXX xx ‡a J. Harris and Son [Author of: Harris’ instructive and amusing publications] Identify the correct TAG for each field Hints: Understanding MARC Bibliographic

32 Tags should look like this …
100 1# ‡a Rowling, J. K. [Author of: Harry Potter and the sorcerer’s stone] 700 1# ‡a GrandPré, Mary. [Illustrator of: Harry Potter and the sorcerer’s stone] 130 0# ‡a Bible. ‡p O.T. ‡p Haggai [Text of a book from the Bible] ‡a Bible. ‡p O.T. ‡p Haggai [Commentary on this text] 650 #0 ‡a Potter, Harry (Fictitious character) 110 2# ‡a J. Harris and Son [Author of: Harris’ instructive and amusing publications] Understanding MARC Bibliographic 32

33 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Take-home exercise 1 Understanding MARC Bibliographic

34 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Take-home exercise 2 Understanding MARC Bibliographic

35 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Take-home exercise 3 Understanding MARC Bibliographic

36 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Web resources Understanding MARC bibliographic Clear and concise overview of (nearly) everything MARC. Online Dictionary for Information Science A useful LIS dictionary with many examples and external links. OCLC Bibliographic formats and standards Essential reference for all catalogers. Library of Congress. MARC standards Much more than just MARC. Essential reference. Understanding MARC Bibliographic

37 Understanding MARC Bibliographic
Thank you! Contact info: Eduardo Tenenbaum Understanding MARC Bibliographic


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