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Albert Schweitzer a Bioethics precursor www.bioetica.ufrgs.br José Roberto Goldim Bioethics Research Laboratory Bioethics Division Hospital de Clinicas.

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Presentation on theme: "Albert Schweitzer a Bioethics precursor www.bioetica.ufrgs.br José Roberto Goldim Bioethics Research Laboratory Bioethics Division Hospital de Clinicas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Albert Schweitzer a Bioethics precursor José Roberto Goldim Bioethics Research Laboratory Bioethics Division Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre Brazil Núcleo Interinstitucional de Bioética IEC

2 Virtue Ethics Dignity LifeLiving Reverence Respect Person Humanity Health Liberty Service Bioethics Music Theology Philosophy Action World Knowledge Thoughts Rational view Reflection Culture Will-to-life Civilization Work Humility Responsibility Happiness Moral Religion Truth Progress Technical Skill Poetic Death Spiritual act ©Goldim/2011

3 Humility Virtue Ethics Dignity LifeLiving Reverence Respect Person Health Liberty Service Bioethics Music Theology Philosophy Action World Knowledge Thoughts Rational view Reflection Culture Will-to-life Civilization Work Responsibility Happiness Moral Religion Truth Progress Technical Skill Poetic Death Spiritual act Humanity ©Goldim/

4 Andre Hellegers Van Rensselaer Potter FritzJahrAlbertSchweitzer Founder Precursor Founder Precursor Bioethics Land Ethic Aldo Leopold Bioethics Precursor 1948 Reverence for Life ©Goldim/2011 Goldim JR. Revisiting the beginning of bioethics: the contribution of Fritz Jahr (1927). Perspect Biol Med Summer;52(3):

5 1915 Insight in Africa Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1919 Sermon Sunday morning service February, 19 at St. Nicolai´s Church 1923 Book Civilization and Ethics 1915 AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Out of my life and thought. New York, Mentor, 1949 (1933):124. Albert Schweitzer Reverence for life: Sermons New York, Irvington, 1993 (1966):109. Albert Schweitzer Civilization and Ethics. London, Black, 1946 (1923):xviii

6 1915 Insight in Africa Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1915 AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Out of my life and thought. New York, Mentor, 1949 (1933):124. Late on the third day (september, 1915), at the very moment when, at sunset, we were making our way through a herd of hippopotamuses, there flashed upon my mind, unforeseen and unsought, the phrase, Reverence for Life “Reverence for Life”.

7 1915 Insight in Africa Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1915 AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Out of my life and thought. New York, Mentor, 1949 (1933):124. Now I knew that the ethical acceptance of the world and of life, together with ideals of civilization contained in this concept, has a foundation in thought.

8 Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1919 Sermon Sunday morning service February, 19 at St. Nicolai´s Church AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Reverence for life: Sermons New York, Irvington, 1993 (1966):109. Life is feeling, experience, suffering. If you study life deeply, looking with perceptive eyes into the vast animated chaos of this creation, its profundity will seize you suddenly with dizziness. In everything you recognize yourself. Land Ethic simply enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land. Aldo Leopold Sand County Almanac 1948:227

9 Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1919 Sermon Sunday morning service February, 19 at St. Nicolai´s Church AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Reverence for life: Sermons New York, Irvington, 1993 (1966):109. Reverence for the infinity of life means removal of the alienation, restoration of empathy, compassion, sympathy. Philosopher Schopenhauer, openly invoking the Indian ideas, considered, as a special quality of his Ethics, the fact of having claimed also to animals the feeling of compassion. Fritz Jahr, 1927

10 Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1919 Sermon Sunday morning service February, 19 at St. Nicolai´s Church AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Reverence for life: Sermons New York, Irvington, 1993 (1966):109. Reverence concerning all life in the greatest commandment in its most elementary form. We take this prohibition (“Thou shalt not kill”) so lightly, thoughtlessly plucking a flower, Most people are naturally not so sensitive as Ed. von Hartmann. Everyone knows that plants are also living beings that are injured when the flower is cut, but the idea that it also feels resentful at that is not familiar to us. Fritz Jahr, 1927

11 Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1923 Book Civilization and Ethics AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Civilization and Ethics. London, Black, 1946 (1923):xviii That is what gives me the fundamental principle of morality, namely, that good consists in maintaining, promoting, and enhancing life, and that destroying, injuring, and limiting life are evil. We must plead not for a moratorium on new klowledge, but a coupling of biological knowledge and human values. Van Rensselar Potter Bioethics, A Bridge to the Future, 1971:11

12 Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1923 Book Civilization and Ethics AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Civilization and Ethics. London, Black, 1946 (1923):xviii A man is ethical only when life, as such, is sacred to him, and that of plants and animals as that of his fellow men... From Biopsychology to Bioethics just one step is required, the acceptance of moral obligations to all living beings, not only in relation to humans. Fritz Jahr, 1927

13 Reverence for Life Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben 1923 Book Civilization and Ethics AlbertSchweitzer ©Goldim/2011 Albert Schweitzer Civilization and Ethics. London, Black, 1946 (1923):xviii Only the universal ethic of the feeling of responsibility in an ever-widening sphere for all that lives - only that ethic can be founded in thought. Bioethics as a new ethics science that combine humbleness, responsibility and an interdisciplinary competence, intercultural, that potential our sense of humanity. Van Rensselaer Potter, Tokyo 1978

14 Bioethics is a complex, shared and interdisciplinary reflection about the adequacy of actions related to Life and Living. José Roberto Goldim Bioética: Origens e Complexidade. Revista HCPA 2006; 26(2):86-92 ©Goldim/2011 Bioethics as an ethical reflection about living beings, including human beings, such as those living beings are presented in everyday relationships in the living world and in theoretical and practical contexts in science and research. Eve-Marie Engels O desafio das biotécnicas para a Ética e a Antropologia. Veritas 2004;50(2):221

15 Van Rensselaer Potter FritzJahrAlbertSchweitzer Bioethics ©Goldim/2011 Aldo Leopold 1948 Land Ethic Reverence for Life Bioethical Imperative Respect every living being on principle as an end in itself and treat it as such if possible! Precursor

16 Life demands that we see through to the solidarity of all life which we can in any degree recognize as having some similarity to the life that is in us. Albert Schweitzer, 1933 Hvala ©Goldim/2011


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