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Section 11.1 Emotional Development from One to Three

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1 Section 11.1 Emotional Development from One to Three
Children go through a series of emotional stages. Each child develops differently based on his or her experiences and temperament. Adequate sleep is vital to good emotional development.

2 Emotional Patterns Emotional development goes in cycles.
Experiences and temperament contribute to emotional development. Children’s emotions go through predictable changes. 2

3 Specific Emotions Even young babies have specific emotions.
Until age two or three, children express their emotions openly. From age 18 months to three years, children can show anger, fear, love, affection, jealousy, and empathy. empathy The ability to understand how another person feels. 3

4 Emotional Adjustment There are clear signs when a child and parents have a healthy relationship. Relationship with siblings is one indicator of a child’s emotional adjustment. 4

5 Emotional Adjustment Children form their self-concept in response to others’ actions, attitudes, and comments. Parents must discourage negative behavior without damaging the child’s self-concept. self-concept How people see themselves. 5

6 10. A sign that toddlers are developing empathy is that they may try to comfort another child who is unhappy. 11. Differences that cause each child to develop emotionally in a unique way are in experiences and in temperament. 12. Children form their self-concept in response to the actions, attitudes, and comments of others, especially those of parents or primary caregivers in children’s early years.

7 13. It is so important for toddlers to have a positive relationship with parents and siblings because it shapes the relationships that children have later in life. 14. Two signs a child has a healthy relationship with a parent are: (Any two) (1) Seeks approval and praise. (2) Turns to parent for comfort and help. (3) Tells parent about significant events to share joy and sorrow. (4) Accepts limits and discipline without too much resistance.

8 1. Most children are self-centered at eighteen months because during infancy they learned that caregivers will promptly meet their needs and desires.

9 2. Two causes for toddlers’ negativism are: (Any two)
(1) Desire for independence. Saying “no” is their way of taking decision-making power. (2) Frustration because they want to do and say more than their bodies and language skills allow. (3) Realization of separateness. The child enjoys the independence but still wants closeness with the caregiver.

10 3. Temper tantrums are likely to start around 18 months and may last until age 3 or 4.
4. The ages that are generally calmer and those that generally have more frustrations: A. Calmer: Two years, three years B. More frustrations: Eighteen months, two and one-half years

11 5. An eighteen-month-old and a three-year-old each typically express anger by:
Eighteen-month-old—Expressed physically and not directed toward any particular person or thing. Three-year-old—Expressed verbally and less explosively and is directed toward the person or thing that is seen as responsible for the problem.

12 6. Phobias are abnormal fears.
7. Separation anxiety is a fear of being away from parents, familiar caregivers, or the normal environment.

13 8. Three ways that caregivers can help toddlers deal with their fears are: (Any three)
(1) Offer support and understanding without making them feel ashamed. (2) Encourage children to talk about their fears. (3) Accept the fears rather than forcing children to confront them. (4) Read books together about children who have fears. (5) Make unfamiliar situations more secure. (6) Teach children how to control frightening situations.

14 9. Three things a parent can do to reduce sibling rivalry are:
9. Three things a parent can do to reduce sibling rivalry are:. (Any three) Show love and affection to each child. (2) Give each child one-on-one time. (3) Avoid comparing one child with another. (4) Let children take turns. (5) Do not accept tattling. (6) Talk to children about their jealousy

15 Sleep and Emotional Behavior
Sleep problems are one of the most common problems children experience. There are several causes of sleep problems. Lack of sleep can affect temperament and the ability to do things. Children go through sleep cycles each night. What are some possible causes of sleep problems? 15

16 15. The two cycles that make up sleep are REM sleep, when dreams occur, and NREM sleep, a deep sleep. 16. Two signs that a child may be sleep-deprived are: (Any two) Must be awakened in the morning. (2) Tired all day. (3) Has trouble thinking. (4) Cranky and hard to get along with. More obvious in older children because they have to get up early for school.

17 Section 11.2 Social Development from One to Three
Children learn to get along with others through a process called socialization. They begin to make friends and deal with conflict. With adult guidance, they gradually achieve self-discipline.

18 General Social Patterns
Young children gradually learn how to get along with other people. At 18 months, children develop independence and engage in parallel play. parallel play When children play near, but not actually with, other children.

19 General Social Patterns
At three years, children work in small groups and engage in cooperative play. cooperative play A type of play in which children play and interact with one another.

20 General Social Patterns
Social Developmental Milestones – Ages 1 - 3 Age Developmental Milestones

21 Making Friends The ability to make friends is important to normal social development.

22 Making Friends When young children spend most of their time with adults, they may have difficulty interacting with children their own age. Imaginary friends can help a child experiment with different feelings. How is playing with an adult different than playing with other children?

23 17. The process of learning social skills in order to get along with family members and others.
18. The difference between parallel play and cooperative play: Parallel play—Comes first and involves children playing near one another, but not really interacting with each other. Cooperative play—Begins around age three and involves children actually playing together

24 19. Describe how concerned with helping and pleasing other children of the following ages and how they demonstrate their level of concern: Two: Want to please others; sometimes willing to put wishes of someone else ahead of their own. B. Two and one-half: May do something for one person but not another for no reason; they are beginning to respond to the idea of fairness. C. Three: Will share, help, or do things another person’s way just to please the person. D. Three and one-half: Will share toys

25 20. A drawback to children spending almost all of their time with adults is that
Children need to feel comfortable with others their own age. If they begin to do this while they are young, socialization is easier. Adults tend to be more considerate, children need to learn how to handle having their feelings hurt by other children.

26 Guiding Behavior Guiding with understanding and firmness helps children learn self-discipline. Guidance helps children with moral development. self-discipline The ability of children to control their own behavior.

27 Guiding Behavior Parents and caregivers should: set limits.
encourage independence. promote sharing. Aggressive behavior must be dealt with.

28 21. When two three-year-olds get into an argument, you should respond by:
First, assess the situation. If they are evenly matched and no physical or emotional harm is being done, just observe. Children need to learn how to work out problems on their own. If someone may be hurt, help them solve the problem. Guide them to find a solution rather than impose one.

29 22. (Possible response) There is no need to be concerned. An imaginary friend is a safe way for a child to experiment with feelings and work through them. David’s imaginary friend will likely disappear within a year or so.

30 23. A parent’s guidance helps a child learn self-discipline because if a parent can keep their cool and handle things in a “gentle but firm” way this helps children learn to control their own behavior. 24. Kayla’s mother was using distraction to guide Kayla. If Kayla was older, her mother could explain why Kayla needs to treat the pet nicely.

31 25. Consistency is important when setting limits because when parents enforce limits at some times but not others, children learn that parents don’t mean what they say, and the children won’t take the limits seriously. 26. Autonomy means independence. Examples will vary.

32 27. Three ways that caregivers can promote sharing among toddlers are: (Any three)
Encourage activities that require sharing and taking turns. (2) Limit materials so that sharing must occur. (3) Have children take turns handing out snacks. (4) Make clear that you want them to share and take turns by talking about these behaviors.

33 28. Biting, hitting, kicking, and shoving
28. Biting, hitting, kicking, and shoving. Caregivers shouldn’t ignore aggressive behavior, but should try to determine the underlying cause.

34 Emotional Development from One to Three
Chapter Summary Section 11.1 Emotional Development from One to Three Children go through a series of emotional stages. Each child develops emotionally in his or her own way, based on temperament and past experiences. With help, children learn to show empathy for others and to handle emotions such as anger and jealousy. Adequate sleep is critical to many areas of a child’s development. 34

35 Social Development from One to Three
Chapter Summary Section 11.2 Social Development from One to Three The socialization process involves gradually developing social skills and learning to get along with others. Behavior needs to be guided by caregivers. With the caregivers’ guidance, children begin to develop a conscience. 35

36 Review Do you remember the vocabulary terms from this chapter? Use the following slides to check your knowledge of the definitions. The slides in this section include both English and Spanish terms and definitions. Start

37 self-centered egocéntrico
Thinking about one’s own needs and wants and not those of others. Pensar sobre las necesidades de uno mismo y no en las de los demás. Show Definition

38 Doing the opposite of what others want.
negativism negativismo Doing the opposite of what others want. Hacer lo contrario a lo que otros quieren. Show Definition

39 temper tantrum pataleta
When children release anger or frustration by screaming, crying, kicking, pounding, and sometimes holding their breath. Cuando los niños desahogan rabia o frustración gritando, llorando, pateando, golpeando y algunas veces conteniendo la respiración. Show Definition

40 phobia fobia An unexplainable and illogical fear.
Un miedo ilógico e inexplicable. Show Definition

41 ansiedad de separación separation anxiety
The fear of being away from parents, familiar caregivers, or the normal environment. Miedo de estar lejos de los padres, de otras personas conocidas que cuidan al niño, o del ambiente normal. Show Definition

42 rivalidad entre hermanos sibling rivalry
The competition between brothers or sisters for parents’ affection and attention. La competencia entre hermanos o hermanas por el cariño y la atención de los padres. Show Definition

43 The ability to understand how another person feels.
empathy compasión The ability to understand how another person feels. Habilidad de entender cómo se siente alguien más. Show Definition

44 self-concept concepto de sí mismo How people see themselves.
Como la persona se ve a sí misma. Show Definition

45 Lacking adequate sleep. Que le falta sueño.
estar privado de sueño sleep-deprived Lacking adequate sleep. Que le falta sueño. Show Definition

46 REM sleep sueño MOR A sleep cycle characterized by rapid eye movement.
Ciclo del sueño caracterizado por el movimiento ocular rápido. Show Definition

47 A cycle of sleep in which rapid eye movement does not occur.
NREM sleep sueño NMOR A cycle of sleep in which rapid eye movement does not occur. Ciclo de sueño en el que el movimiento ocular rápido no ocurre. Show Definition

48 socialización socialization
The process of learning how to interact and express oneself with others. El proceso de aprender a llevarse bien con otros. Show Definition

49 When children play near, but not actually with, other children.
parallel play juego paralelo When children play near, but not actually with, other children. Cuando los niños juegan cerca deotros niñossin jugar con ellos. Show Definition

50 A type of play in which children play and interact with one another.
cooperative play juego cooperativo A type of play in which children play and interact with one another. Tipode juego en el que los niños interactúan entre sí. Show Definition

51 The ability of children to control their own behavior.
self-discipline autodisciplina The ability of children to control their own behavior. La habilidad de los niños para controlar su propio comportamiento. Show Definition

52 Independencia, capacidad de tomar decisiones y llevarlas a cabo.
autonomy autonomía Personal independence and the capacity to make decisions and act on them. Independencia, capacidad de tomar decisiones y llevarlas a cabo. Show Definition

53 time-out pausa When a child is removed from the group, perhaps by being required to sit in a special chair for a short period of time. Cuando un niño es aislado del grupo y se le requiere que, por ejemplo, se siente en un asiento especial por un corto periodo de tiempo. Show Definition

54 Observant; quick to understand things.
perceptive perceptivo Observant; quick to understand things. Observador; rápido para entender cosas. Show Definition

55 Sufficient in quantity or quality to meet a need.
adequate adecuado Sufficient in quantity or quality to meet a need. Suficiente en cantidad o calidad. Show Definition

56 To form a judgment of something uncertain or variable.
gauge estimar To form a judgment of something uncertain or variable. Juzgar algo incierto o una variable. Show Definition

57 A diversion; something that interferes with concentration.
distraction distracción A diversion; something that interferes with concentration. Diversión; algo que interfiere con la concentración. Show Definition

58 Emotional and Social Development from One to Three
End of Chapter 11 Emotional and Social Development from One to Three home glencoe.com


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